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Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.


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Multi-tissue analyses reveal limited inter-annual and seasonal variation in mercury exposure in an Antarctic penguin community.

Ecotoxicology. 2014 Oct;23(8):1494-504

Authors: Brasso RL, Polito MJ, Emslie SD

Abstract
Inter-annual variation in tissue mercury concentrations in birds can result from annual changes in the bioavailability of mercury or shifts in dietary composition and/or trophic level. We investigated potential annual variability in mercury dynamics in the Antarctic marine food web using Pygoscelis penguins as biomonitors. Eggshell membrane, chick down, and adult feathers were collected from three species of sympatrically breeding Pygoscelis penguins during the austral summers of 2006/2007-2010/2011. To evaluate the hypothesis that mercury concentrations in penguins exhibit significant inter-annual variation and to determine the potential source of such variation (dietary or environmental), we compared tissue mercury concentrations with trophic levels as indicated by δ(15)N values from all species and tissues. Overall, no inter-annual variation in mercury was observed in adult feathers suggesting that mercury exposure, on an annual scale, was consistent for Pygoscelis penguins. However, when examining tissues that reflected more discrete time periods (chick down and eggshell membrane) relative to adult feathers, we found some evidence of inter-annual variation in mercury exposure during penguins' pre-breeding and chick rearing periods. Evidence of inter-annual variation in penguin trophic level was also limited suggesting that foraging ecology and environmental factors related to the bioavailability of mercury may provide more explanatory power for mercury exposure compared to trophic level alone. Even so, the variable strength of relationships observed between trophic level and tissue mercury concentrations across and within Pygoscelis penguin species suggest that caution is required when selecting appropriate species and tissue combinations for environmental biomonitoring studies in Antarctica.

PMID: 25085270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.


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The blood biochemistry of overwintering diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)


Publication date: May 2015
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 466

Author(s): Leigh Anne Harden , Stephen R. Midway , Amanda Southwood Williard

Estuarine ectothermic vertebrates, such as diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin, Schwartz 1955), inhabit a dynamic environment, and many aspects of their biology reflect their ability to withstand and respond to these environmental challenges. The physiological adjustments necessary to maintain water and salt balance and the metabolic adjustments that accompany seasonal changes in activity and behavior have not been well-characterized for overwintering terrapins under field conditions. To investigate terrapin osmotic and metabolic physiology during winter when activity levels are depressed, we obtained repeat blood samples from 10 radio-tagged female terrapins maintained in a semi-natural, open-air salt marsh enclosure in southeastern North Carolina, USA. From November 2011 to April 2012, we measured monthly plasma osmolality, plasma concentrations of inorganic osmolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−), and protein catabolic indices (urea and uric acid), as well as monthly plasma concentrations of total Ca2+, lactate, and glucose as metabolic indices. We used linear mixed models to determine the best predictors of blood chemistry, where time (i.e., day) and environmental variables were fixed factors and individual terrapins were random factors. Day was a poor predictor of blood chemistry concentrations, indicating that the progression of winter did not elicit corresponding changes in biochemical indices as documented in other semi-aquatic turtles exposed to more severe winter and/or laboratory conditions. Carapace temperature was the most common predictor of blood chemistry concentrations in all models, underscoring its relative influence on physiology. In contrast to previous laboratory-based studies on the overwinter physiology of terrapins, our study demonstrates that terrapins in their natural environment are able to maintain biochemical homeostasis throughout winter. The use of evasive behavioral strategies may be an important factor for terrapins to reduce the passive exchange of water and salts with the estuarine environment.





Impact of Initial Norwood Shunt Type on Right Ventricular Deformation: The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial


Publication date: Available online 14 February 2015
Source:Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography

Author(s): Garick D. Hill , Peter C. Frommelt , Jessica Stelter , M. Jay Campbell , Meryl S. Cohen , Rami Kharouf , Wyman W. Lai , Jami C. Levine , Jimmy C. Lu , Shaji C. Menon , Timothy C. Slesnick , Pierre C. Wong , David E. Saudek

Background The Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial demonstrated a transplantation-free survival advantage at 12-month follow-up for patients with right ventricle–pulmonary artery shunts (RVPAS) with the Norwood procedure compared with modified Blalock-Taussig shunts but similar survival and decreased global right ventricular (RV) function on longer term follow-up. The impact of the required ventriculotomy for the RVPAS remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare echocardiography-derived RV deformation indices after stage 2 procedures in survivors with single RV anomalies enrolled in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial. Methods Global and regional RV systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate, ejection fraction, and short-axis percentage fractional area change were all derived by speckle-tracking echocardiography from protocol echocardiograms obtained at 14.3 ± 1.2 months. Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups. Results The cohort included 275 subjects (129 in the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt group and 146 in the RVPAS group). Longitudinal deformation could be quantified in 214 subjects (78%) and circumferential measures in 182 subjects (66%). RV ejection fraction and percentage fractional area change did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups for global or regional longitudinal deformation. Circumferential indices showed abnormalities in deformation in the RVPAS group, with decreased global circumferential strain (P = .05), strain rate (P = .09), and anterior regional strain rate (P = .07) that approached statistical significance. Conclusions RV myocardial deformation at 14 months, after stage 2 procedures, was not significantly altered by the type of initial shunt placed. However, abnormal trends were appreciated in circumferential deformation for the RVPAS group in the area of ventriculotomy that may represent early myocardial dysfunction. These data provide a basis for longer term RV deformation assessment in survivors after Norwood procedures.





Stable isotopes in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) fossils reveal environmental stability in the late Quaternary of the Colorado Rocky Mountains


Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015
Source:Quaternary Research

Author(s): Linda M. Reynard , David J. Meltzer , Steven D. Emslie , Noreen Tuross

High elevation plant and animal communities are considered extremely sensitive to environmental change. We investigated an exceptional fossil record of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) specimens that was recovered from Cement Creek Cave (elev. 2860m) and ranged in age from radiocarbon background circa 49.8calkaBP to ~1calkaBP. We coupled isotopic and radiocarbon measurements (δ18O, δD, δ15N, δ13C, and 14C) of bone collagen from individually-AMS dated specimens of marmots to assess ecological responses by this species to environmental change over time in a high elevation basin in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. We find little change in all four isotope ratios over time, demonstrating considerable environmental stability during periods when the marmots were present. The stable ecology and the apparent persistence of the small mammal community in the cave fauna throughout the late Quaternary are in marked contrast to the changes that occurred in the large mammal community, including local extirpation and extinction, at the end of the Pleistocene.





Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida


Publication date: April 2015
Source:Toxicon, Volume 97

Author(s): Katherine McFarland , Fred Jean , Philippe Soudant , Aswani K. Volety

Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g−1 PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4–5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2–8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications.





Contributors


Publication date: 2015
Source:Cummings Otolaryngology

Author(s): Waleed M. Abuzeid , Meredith E. Adams , Peter A. Adamson , Antoine Adenis , Seth A. Akst , Sheri L. Albers , Clint T. Allen , Carryn Anderson , William B. Armstrong , Michelle G. Arnold , Moisés A. Arriaga , H. Alexander Arts , Yasmine A. Ashram , Nafi Aygun , Douglas D. Backous , Shan R. Baker , Thomas J. Balkany , Leonardo Balsalobre , Fuad M. Baroody , Nancy L. Bartlett , Robert W. Bastian , Gregory J. Basura , Carol A. Bauer , Shethal Bearelly , Mark J. Been , Diana M. Bell , Michael S. Benninger , Arnaud F. Bewley , Prabhat K. Bhama , Nasir Islam Bhatti , Amit D. Bhrany , Benjamin S. Bleier , Andrew Blitzer , Michael M. Bottros , Derald E. Brackmann , Carol R. Bradford , Gregory H. Branham , Barton F. Branstetter IV , Jason A. Brant , Michael J. Brenner , Scott Brietzke , Robert J.S. Briggs , Jennifer Veraldi Brinkmeier , Hilary A. Brodie , Carolyn J. Brown , David J. Brown , Kevin D. Brown , Lisa M. Brown , Cameron L. Budenz , John P. Carey , Margaretha L. Casselbrandt , Paolo Castelnuovo , Kenny H. Chan , Burke E. Chegar , Eunice Y. Chen , Alan G. Cheng , Douglas B. Chepeha , Tendy Chiang , Wade W. Chien , Sukgi S. Choi , Richard A. Chole , James M. Christian , Eugene A. Chu , Robert Chun , Martin J. Citardi , Andrew Michael Compton , Robin T. Cotton , Marion Everett Couch , Martha Laurin Council , Mark S. Courey , Benjamin T. Crane , Oswaldo Laércio M. Cruz , Frank Culicchia , Charles W. Cummings , Calhoun D. Cunningham III , Brian C. Dahlin , Sam J. Daniel , E. Ashlie Darr , Terry A. Day , Charles C. Della Santina , Joshua C. Demke , Françoise Denoyelle , Craig S. Derkay , Rodney C. Diaz , Robert A. Dobie , Alison B. Durham , Scott D.Z. Eggers , Avraham Eisbruch , David W. Eisele , Lindsay S. Eisler , Mark El-Deiry , Hussam K. El-Kashlan , Ravindhra G. Elluru , Susan D. Emmett , Samer Fakhri , Carole Fakhry , Marcela Fandiño Cardenas , Edward H. Farrior , Richard T. Farrior , Russell A. Faust , Berrylin J. Ferguson , Daniel S. Fink , Paul W. Flint , Wytske J. Fokkens , Howard W. Francis , David R. Friedland , Oren Friedman , Rick A. Friedman , John L. Frodel Jr , Michael P. Gailey , Suzanne K. Doud Galli , Ian Ganly , Bruce J. Gantz , C. Gaelyn Garrett , M. Boyd Gillespie , Douglas A. Girod , Adam C. Goddard , John C. Goddard , George S. Goding Jr , Andrew N. Goldberg , David Goldenberg , Nira A. Goldstein , Debra Gonzalez , Christine G. Gourin , Glenn Green , Vincent Grégoire , Heike Gries , Garrett Griffin , Elizabeth Guardiani , Samuel P. Gubbels , Patrick K. Ha , Bronwyn E. Hamilton , Grant S. Hamilton III , Marc Hamoir , Jaynee A. Handelsman , Ehab Y. Hanna , Brian M. Harmych , Uli Harréus , Robert V. Harrison , Bruce H. Haughey , Amer Heider , John Hellstein , Kurt R. Herzer , Frans J.M. Hilgers , Justin D. Hill , Alexander T. Hillel , Michael L. Hinni , Allen S. Ho , Maria K. Ho , Henry T. Hoffman , Eric H. Holbrook , David B. Hom , Jeffrey J. Houlton , John W. House , Timothy E. Hullar , Steven Ing , Stacey L. Ishman , Robert K. Jackler , Neal M. Jackson , Ryan S. Jackson , Brian Jameson , Herman A. Jenkins , Hong-Ryul Jin , John K. Joe , Stephanie A. Joe , Christopher M. Johnson , Tiffany A. Johnson , Timothy M. Johnson , Nicholas S. Jones , Mark Jorissen , Morbize Julieron , Alyssa A. Kanaan , Robert T. Kavitt , Robert M. Kellman , David W. Kennedy , Jessica Kepchar , Robert C. Kern , Merrill S. Kies , Paul R. Kileny , Alyn J. Kim , Jason H. Kim , Theresa Kim , William J. Kimberling , Ericka F. King , Jeffrey Koh , Raymond J. Konior , Frederick K. Kozak , Shannon M. Kraft , Russell Kridel , Parvesh Kumar , Melda Kunduk , Ollivier Laccourreye , Stephen Y. Lai , Devyani Lal , Anil K. Lalwani , Derek J. Lam , Paul R. Lambert , Christopher G. Larsen , Amy Anne Lassig , Richard E. Latchaw , Kevin P. Leahy , Daniel J. Lee , Nancy Lee , Stella Lee , Maureen A. Lefton-Greif , Donald A. Leopold , Marci M. Lesperance , Jessica Levi , James S. Lewis Jr , Daqing Li , Timothy S. Lian , Whitney Liddy , Charles J. Limb , Judy Z. Liu , Jeri A. Logemann , Thomas Loh , Christopher Lominska , Brenda L. Lonsbury-Martin , David G. Lott , Lawrence R. Lustig , Anna Lysakowski , Robert H. Maisel , Ellen M. Mandel , Susan J. Mandel , Devinder S. Mangat , Lynette J. Mark , Jeffrey C. Markt , Michael Marsh , Glen K. Martin , Douglas E. Mattox , Thomas V. McCaffrey , JoAnn McGee , Johnathan D. McGinn , John F. McGuire , Jonathan McJunkin , J. Scott McMurray , Jeremy D. Meier , Albert L. Merati , Saumil N. Merchant , Anna H. Messner , Anna Meyer , James D. Michelson , Henry A. Milczuk , Jennifer L. Millar , Michelle Miller-Thomas , Lloyd B. Minor , Jenna L. Mitchell , Steven Ross Mobley , Eric J. Moore , Harlan Muntz , Craig S. Murakami , Jeffrey N. Myers , Robert M. Naclerio , Joseph B. Nadol Jr , Paul Nassif , Marc Nelson , Rick F. Nelson , Piero Nicolai , David R. Nielsen , John K. Niparko , Richard J. Noel , S.A. Reza Nouraei , Ajani Nugent , Daniel W. Nuss , Brian Nussenbaum , Gretchen M. Oakley , Rick M. Odland , Richard G. Ohye , Bert W. O'Malley Jr , Robert C. O'Reilly , Juan Camilo Ospina , Robert H. Ossoff , Mark D. Packer , Nitin A. Pagedar , John Pallanch , Stephen S. Park , Matthew S. Parsons , Hetal H. Patel , G. Alexander Patterson , Phillip K. Pellitteri , Jonathan A. Perkins , Stephen W. Perkins , Shirley S.N. Pignatari , Steven D. Pletcher , Aron Popovtzer , Gregory N. Postma , Shannon M. Poti , William P. Potsic , Seth E. Pross , Liana Puscas , Zhen Jason Qian , Virginia Ramachandran , Gregory W. Randolph , Lesley Rao , Christopher H. Rassekh , Lou Reinisch , Albert L. Rhoton Jr , Nadeem Riaz , Jeremy D. Richmon , James M. Ridgway , Matthew H. Rigby , Mark D. Rizzi , K. Thomas Robbins , Daniel Roberts , Frederick C. Roediger , Ohad Ronen , Kristina W. Rosbe , Richard M. Rosenfeld , Bruce E. Rotter , Jay T. Rubinstein , Michael J. Ruckenstein , Christina L. Runge , Leonard P. Rybak , Rami E. Saade , Babak Sadoughi , Thomas J. Salinas , Sandeep Samant , Robin A. Samlan , Ravi N. Samy , Guri S. Sandhu , Cara Sauder , Richard L. Scher , Joshua S. Schindler , Cecelia E. Schmalbach , Scott R. Schoem , Michael C. Schubert , Todd J. Schwedt , James J. Sciubba , Anthony P. Sclafani , Meena Seshamani , A. Eliot Shearer , Clough Shelton , Neil T. Shepard , Seiji B. Shibata , Yelizaveta Shnayder , Kathleen C.Y. Sie , Daniel B. Simmen , Michael C. Singer , Parul Sinha , William H. Slattery III , Henrik Smeds , Marshall E. Smith , Richard J.H. Smith , Timothy L. Smith , Ryan H. Sobel , Robert A. Sofferman , Zachary M. Soler , Samuel A. Spear , Steven M. Sperry , Niranjan Sritharan , Brad A. Stach , Robert P. Stachecki , Hinrich Staecker , Aldo Cassol Stamm , James A. Stankiewicz , Shawn M. Stevens , David L. Steward , David G. Stoddard Jr , Janalee K. Stokken , Angela Sturm-O'Brien , John B. Sunwoo , Veronica C. Swanson , Robert A. Swarm , Jonathan M. Sykes , Luke Tan , Marietta Tan , Pravin A. Taneja , M. Eugene Tardy Jr , Sherard A. Tatum III , S. Mark Taylor , Rod A. Teasley , Helder Tedeschi , Steven A. Telian , David J. Terris , J. Regan Thomas , Chafeek Tomeh , Dean M. Toriumi , Aline Tran , Joseph B. Travers , Susan P. Travers , Mai Thy Truong , Terance T. Tsue , Michael D. Turner , Ravindra Uppaluri , Michael F. Vaezi , Kathryn M. Van Abel , Michiel W.M. van den Brekel , Lori A. Van Riper , Sunil P. Verma , Peter M. Vila , David E. Vokes , P. Ashley Wackym , Tamekia L. Wakefield , Michael J. Walden , Thomas J. Walker , Edward J. Walsh , Rohan R. Walvekar , Tom D. Wang , Tzu-Fei Wang , Frank M. Warren III , Heather H. Waters , Randal S. Weber , Richard O. Wein , Gregory S. Weinstein , Erik K. Weitzel , D. Bradley Welling , Richard D. Wemer , Ralph F. Wetmore , Richard H. Wiggins III , Brent J. Wilkerson , Franz J. Wippold II , Gayle Ellen Woodson , Peter J. Wormald , Harry V. Wright , Robert F. Yellon , Charles D. Yingling , Bevan Yueh , Rex C. Yung , Renzo A. Zaldívar , George H. Zalzal , Adam M. Zanation , David S. Zee , Marc S. Zimbler , S. James Zinreich , Teresa A. Zwolan







Contributors


Publication date: 2015
Source:Delee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine

Author(s): Kathleen C. Abalos , Alexander M. Aboka , Jeffrey S. Abrams , Scott M. Adams , Mohd Al Ateeq Al Dosari , Mauro Alini , Ma'ad F. Al-Saati , Peter E. Amato Jr. , Annunziato Amendola , Lindsay Andras , James R. Andrews , Thomas Andriacchi , Robert A. Arciero , Kevin Asem , Chad A. Asplund , Robert E. Atkinson , Luke S. Austin , Bernard R. Bach Jr. , Aaron L. Baggish , Roald Bahr , Caroline Baratz , Mark E. Baratz , Jeffrey T. Barth , Robert W. Battle , Frank Berkowitz , Thomas M. Best , Bruce Beynnon , Rishi Bhatnagar , Randy Bird , Patrick M. Birmingham , Debdut Biswas , Melanie Bonin , Itamar B. Botser , Margaret K. Boushell , Katherine Boyer , James P. Bradley , Jonathan T. Bravman , Stephen F. Brockmeier , Adam G. Brooks , Donna K. Broshek , Jefferey Brunelli , Lance M. Brunton , Brian Busconi , Charles A. Bush-Joseph , Glenn Buterbaugh , David L. Butler , J.W. Thomas Byrd , E. Lyle Cain Jr. , John Campbell , Kevin Caperton , Erik Carlson , Rebecca Cerrato , Jas Chahal , Peter N. Chalmers , Aakash Chauhan , A. Bobby Chhabra , Eric Chicas , John Jared Christophel , Philip J. Chuang , Mario Ciocca , John P. Clement , Brian J. Cole , Andrew J. Cosgarea , Juan Eugenio Cosme , Jeffrey Cunningham , Ralph J. Curtis , Shannon David , Thomas M. DeBerardino , Richard E. Debski , Marc M. DeHart , Jeffrey M. DeLong , Arthur Jason De Luigi , Marco Demange , John J. Densmore , Ashvin K. Dewan , Seth D. Dodds , Benjamin G. Domb , William F. Donaldson III , Jeffrey R. Dugas , Kostas J. Economopoulos , Marsha Eifert-Mangine , Christoph Erggelet , Brandon J. Erickson , Fatih Ertem , Mark S Eskander , Norman Espinosa , Jesse L. Even , Yale Fillingham , Lisa Fischer , Rachel M. Frank , Heather Freeman , Jason R. Freeman , Raffaele Garofalo , William E. Garrett Jr. , R. Glenn Gaston , Andrew G. Geeslin , William B. Geissler , J. Robert Giffin , Thomas A. Gill , Pau Golanó , Jorge Gómez , Andreas H. Gomoll , Howard P. Goodkin , David Goodwin , Thomas J. Graham , Phillip Gribble , Michael J. Griesser , Justin W. Griffin , Letha Griffin , Andrew J. Grove , Carlos A. Guanche , James J. Guerra , Mark G. Hamming , Daniel M. Hampton , Bryan T. Hanypsiak , Talal Hariri , Joshua D. Harris , Jennifer A. Hart , Andrew Haskell , Munif Hatem , Bryan D. Haughom , Michael R. Hausman , Daniel Herman , C. Joel Hess , Carolyn M. Hettrich , MaCalus Hogan , Christopher Hogrefe , Catherine Hui , Waqas M. Hussain , Victor Manuel Ilizaliturri Sánchez Jr. , John V. Ingari , Todd A. Irwin , Nicolas V. Jaumard , Tatiana Jevremovic , Darren L. Johnson , Don Johnson , Jared S. Johnson , Ron M. Johnson , Grant L. Jones , Anish R. Kadakia , S. Babak Kalantar , Kambiz Kalantari , Thomas W. Kaminski , Christopher A. Keen , Bryan T. Kelly , Susan E. Kirk , Donald T. Kirkendall , Mininder S. Kocher , Sumant G. Krishnan , Marshall A. Kuremsky , Shawn M. Kutnik , Jessica Kynyk , Robert F. LaPrade , Christopher M. Larson , William C. Lauerman , Peter Lawrence , Nicholas LeCursi , William N. Levine , Thomas R. Lewis , Richard L. Lieber , Kenneth Lindell , Thomas N. Lindenfeld , Robert B. Litchfield , Carlos A. Lopez , Gary M. Lourie , Walter R. Lowe , Helen H. Lu , Richard Ma , Travis G. Maak , John MacKnight , Henning Madry , Suzanne Maher , Francesc Malagelada , Robert Mangine , Michael A. Marchetti , Britt Marcussen , Hal David Martin , Lyndon Mason , Elizabeth G. Matzkin , Augustus D. Mazzocca , David R. McAllister , Joseph C. McCarthy , Eric C. McCarty , Robert G. McCormack , Kelly R. McCormick , Brett W. McCoy , Sean McMillan , Kenneth R. Means Jr. , Matthew D. Milewski , Wanda Millard , Mark D. Miller , R. Matthew Miller , Dilaawar J. Mistry , Todd Moen , Peter J. Moley , Andrew Molloy , Timothy S. Mologne , Michael Montano , Scott R. Montgomery , Claude T. Moorman III , Nathan M. Nair , Norimasa Nakamura , Nima Nassiri , Rebecca J. Nesbitt , Jared A. Niska , Carl W. Nissen , Shelley M. Oliver , Anell Olivos Meza , James Onate , Scott I. Otallah , Brett D. Owens , Corey A. Pacek , Russ Paine , Ian James Palmer , Richard D. Parker , Jonathan P. Parsons , Anthony Perera , Leanne Peters , Ninoska Peterson , William A. Petri Jr. , Frank A. Petrigliano , Rory J. Petteys , Robert Pivec , Matthew A. Posner , Teodor T. Postolache , Tricia K. Prokop , Matthew T. Provencher , Jason A. Ramsey , John Redmond , David R. Richardson , Christopher J. Roach , Elliot P. Robinson , Scott A. Rodeo , Anthony A. Romeo , Melvin P. Rosenwasser , Mitchell H. Rosner , Heidi C. Rossetti , Glen H. Rudolph , Matthew Russo , Marc Safran , Mark Sakr , Timothy G. Sanders , Prasad J. Sawardeker , Anousheh Sayah , Michael Schaer , Laura Scordino , David Selvan , Jason T. Shearn , K. Donald Shelbourne , Ashley Matthews Shilling , Adam Shimer , David L. Skaggs , Frederick S. Song , Kurt Spindler , Alison Spouge , Chad Starkey , Siobhan Statuta , John W. Stiller , J. Andy Sullivan , Stephan J. Sweet , Peter P. Syré , Thomas Kyle Tabor , Eric W. Tan , Peter Tang , Dean C. Taylor , Kenneth F. Taylor , Sam G. Tejwani , Raj Telhan , Stephen R. Thompson , Fotios P. Tjoumakaris , John M. Tokish , Rachel Triche , Narayana Varhabhatla , Aaron J. Vaughan , Jordi Vega , Avaleen Vopicka , Stephen C. Weber , William M. Weiss , William C. Welch , Benjamin Williams , Barbara Wilson , Brian F. Wilson , Beth A. Winkelstein , Jennifer Moriatis Wolf , Valerie M. Wolfe , Robert W. Wysocki , Yi-Meng Yen , Hassaan Yousufi , Tracy Zaslow , Xinzhi Zhang , Mary L. Zupanc







Contributors


Publication date: 2015
Source:Faust's Anesthesiology Review

Author(s): Martin D. Abel , Adebola Adesanya , Brooke E. Albright , Bradley Anderson , Richard L. Applegate II , Katherine W. Arendt , Anna E. Bartunek , Keith H. Berge , Michael L. Bishop , Susan Black , Gilbert A. Blaise , Eric L. Bloomfield , Caridad Bravo-Fernandez , Daniel R. Brown , David L. Brown , Sorin J. Brull , Daniel R. Bustamante , Paul E. Carns , Edmund Carton , Renee E. Caswell , Steven R. Clendenen , Norman A. Cohen , Daniel J. Cole , Craig M. Combs , James P. Conterato , David J. Cook , Eric G. Cornidez , Douglas B. Coursin , Robert M. Craft , Claudia C. Crawford , Frank D. Crowl , Efrain Israel Cubillo IV , Roy F. Cucchiara , Nancy J. Cummings , David R. Danielson , Nicole M. Dawson , Marie L. De Ruyter , Martin L. De Ruyter , Peter A. DeSocio , Daniel A. Diedrich , Niki M. Dietz , John A. Dilger , Gavin D. Divertie , Karen B. Domino , Brian S. Donahue , Carla L. Dormer , Jerry A. Dorsch , Douglas A. Dubbink , Andrea P. Dutoit , Beth A. Elliott , Brian Emerson , Jerry L. Epps , Kirstin M. Erickson , Scott A. Eskuri , Jonathan A. Faust , Neil G. Feinglass , James Y. Findlay , Randall P. Flick , William David Freeman , Robert J. Friedhoff , Brantley Dollar Gaitan , Scott A. Gammel , Carol B. Garrison , Halena M. Gazelka , Adrian Gelb , Salim Michel Ghazi , James A. Giacalone , R. Scott Gorman , Robert E. Grady , Roy A. Greengrass , Alina M. Grigore , Cornelius B. Groenewald , Heidi A. Hadley , Dawit T. Haile , Robert G. Hale , Brian A. Hall , James D. Hannon , Kenneth C. Harris , Barry A. Harrison , Terese T. Horlocker , Joshua Horowitz , Michael P. Hosking , Srikanth Hosur , Clint Grant Humpherys , Michael G. Ivancic , Daniel J. Janik , Aaron M. Joffe , Michael Egon Johnson , Keith A. Jones , Mark T. Keegan , James D. Kindscher , Melinda A. King , Michelle A.O. Kinney , Suneerat Kongsayreepong , Sandra L. Kopp , Sarang S. Koushik , Beth L. Ladlie , Tim J. Lamer , David Layer , Alaric C. LeBaron , Sten Lindahl , Timothy R. Long , Jeffrey J. Lunn , Christopher V. Maani , Ian MacVeigh , Aaron J. Mancuso , Carlos B. Mantilla , H. Michael Marsh , David P. Martin , William J. Mauermann , Patrick O. McConville , Craig C. McFarland , Brian P. McGlinch , K. A. Kelly McQueen , Sharon K. Merrick , Colin George Merridew , Julia I. Metzner , Lopa Misra , Susan M. Moeschler , Steven T. Morozowich , Jeff T. Mueller , David R. Mumme , Michael J. Murray , Teresa M. Murray , Bradly J. Narr , Heather L. Naumann , Stephanie A. Neuman , Doris B.M. Ockert , William C. Oliver Jr. , Jeffrey J. Pasternak , Prith Peiris , Nicole W. Pelly , Steven G. Peters , Roxann D. Barnes Pike , Karl A. Poterack , Jennifer A. Rabbitts , Peter Radell , Mary M. Rajala , Harish Ramakrishna , Manoch Rattanasompattikul , Guy S. Reeder , Kent H. Rehfeldt , Edwin H. Rho , Richard H. Rho , Christopher B. Robards , Kip D. Robinson , Eduardo S. Rodrigues , Steven H. Rose , David M. Rosenfeld , Joseph J. Sandor , Wolfgang Schramm , David P. Seamans , Lisa S. Seip , Deepesh M. Shah , William Shakespeare , David P. Shapiro , Yu Shi , Timothy S.J. Shine , Allen Brian Shoham , Jeffrey W. Simmons , Daniel V. Simula , Molly Solorzano , J. Robert Sonne , Thomas N. Spackman , Wolf H. Stapelfeldt , Joshua D. Stearns , Petter Andreas Steen , Robert A. Strickland , Kjetil Sunde , Barbara E. Switzer , Kamthorn Tantivitayatan , Brian J. Thomas , Christopher A. Thunberg , Klaus D. Torp , Nichole T. Townsend , Robert J. Trainer , Terrence L. Trentman , MAJ Ali Akber Turabi , Inge Falk van Rooyen , John M. VanErdewyk , Gurinder M.S. Vasdev , Jörg H. Vetterman , Amorn Vijitpavan , Amy G. Voet , Wayne H. Wallender , R. Doris Wang , David O. Warner , Mary Ellen Warner , C. Thomas Wass , Mary B. Weber , Denise J. Wedel , Toby N. Weingarten , Eric Werner , Jack L. Wilson , Gilbert Y. Wong , Glenn E. Woodworth , Qinghao Xu , Tony L. Yaksh , Avishai Ziser







Contributors


Publication date: 2015
Source:Musculoskeletal Imaging

Author(s): Faustino A. Abascal , Judith E. Adams , Ronald S. Adler , Joong Mo Ahn , Jorge Albareda Albareda , Sana Ali , Gina M. Allen , Arash Anavim , Mark W. Anderson , Suzanne E. Anderson , Francisco Aparisi , Pilar Aparisi Gómez , Derek R. Armfield , Bridget Atkins , Jonathan C. Baker , Lisa O. Ballehr , Romulo Baltazar , Laura Bancroft , Chad H. Barker , Michelle A. Barr , Andrea Baur-Melnyk , Francesca Beaman , Javier Beltran , Luis S. Beltran , Jenny T. Bencardino , Donna G. Blankenbaker , Hans L. Bloem , Marcy B. Bolster , Peyman Borghei , Cedric Boulet , Patrick A. Brouwer , Elliott Brown , Ángel Bueno , Michele Calleja , Ana Canga , Fabiano Nassar Cardoso , Victor Cassar-Pullicino , Conrado Furtado de Albuquerque Cavalcanti , Luis Cerezal , Russell W. Chapin , Qi Chen , Yvonne Y. Cheung , Aaron Cho , Kishore K. Chundru , Usha Chundru , Christine B. Chung , Claire Coggins , Antonio Cruz , Christian Czerny , Richard H. Daffner , Melvin D'Anastasi , A. Mark Davies , Kirkland W. Davis , Milko C. de Jonge , Michel O. De Maeseneer , Arthur De Schepper , José Luis del Cura , Bradley N. Delman , Sachin Dheer , Grégory Dieudonné , Joseph Dobtsis , Brendan T. Doherty , Rodrigo Dominguez , Davide Maria Donati , Seema Döring , Nimisha Dorshi , Hassan Douis , Aija Dzirkale , Georges Y. El-Khoury , Ilze Eņǵele , Ana M. Hualde Enguita , Mara Epermane , Christopher J. Fang , Laura M. Fayad , Steven Finden , Donald J. Flemming , Jürgen Freyschmidt , Jan L. Gielen , Angela Gessner Gopez , Tetyana Gorbachova , Andrew J. Grainger , Andrew H. Haims , Joseph Hanono , Faye N. Hant , John H. Harris Jr. , Curtis W. Hayes , Tamara Miner Haygood , Victoria Higueras , Siegfried Hofmann , Peter Hrehorovich , Maya Sardjono Hsieh , Wouter C.J. Huysse , Hakan Ilaslan , Karsten Jablonka , Neda Jafarian , Steven L.J. James , Ann M. Johnson , Karl Johnson , Maria Bernadette Johnson , Apostolos Karantanas , Theodoros F. Katsivas , Eoin C. Kavanagh , Theodore E. Keats , Shah H.M. Khan , Valeriy Kheyfits , Gabrielle P. Konin , George Koulouris , Josef Kramer , Mark J. Kransdorf , Herman M. Kroon , Dylan C. Kwait , Radhesh Lalam , Susanne W.Y. Lardenoije , Hans P. Ledermann , Scott S. Lenobel , Brandon Y. Liu , Eva Llopis , Bart Loeys , Chika Iloanusi Logie , Niamh M. Long , Calvin Ma , Jacques Malghem , Natalia Marks , José Martel , Manesh Mathew , Iain W. McCall , Eugene McNally , José M. Mellado Santos , Kirsten A. Menn , Theodore T. Miller , Douglas N. Mintz , Johnny U.V. Monu , Sandra Moore , Morcos Morcos , William B. Morrison , Geert R. Mortier , Timothy J. Mosher , Michael E. Mulligan , Mark D. Murphey , William A. Murphy Jr. , Anna Nazarenko , Elina Neilande , Daniel B. Nissman , Amaka C. Offiah , Richard Oh , Imran M. Omar , Patrick Omoumi , Oleg Opsha , Simon Ostlere , Joshua Owen , Mario Padron , Narayan Babu Paruchuri , Christian W.A. Pfirrmann , Michael J. Pharoah , Marc J. Philippon , Thomas L. Pope Jr. , Linda Probyn , Steven Raeymaeckers , James J. Rankine , Anil G. Rao , Nisha Rao , Lisa G. Rider , Catherine C. Roberts , Philip Robinson , Lee F. Rogers , Alejandro U. Rolón , Lorne Rosenbloom , Daniel I. Rosenthal , David A. Rubin , Rodrigo A. Salgado , Barry Schenk , Anna Scheurecker , Jean Schils , Corinna Schorn , Andreas Schwarting , Mark E. Schweitzer , Jon K. Sekiya , Maryam Shahabpour , Prashant V. Shankar , Steven Shankman , Roger Smith , Annemie Snoeckx , Travis G. Snyder , Peter M. Som , Alison R. Spouge , Alan Sprigg , Evan G. Stein , Lynne S. Steinbach , Murali Sundaram , Mihra S. Taljanovic , James Teh , Jamshid Tehranzadeh , Afranio dos Reis Teixeira Neto , Maaike P. Terra , Bernhard Tins , Dechen Wangmo Tshering Vogel , Michael J. Tuite , Hilary R. Umans , Ishaq Fahmi Uri , Arian R. van Erkel , Carla van Rijswijk , Bruno Vande Berg , Filip M. Vanhoenacker , Koenraad L. Verstraete , Eric A. Walker , Iain Watt , Lawrence M. White , Helen Williams , Kevin R. Willits , David J. Wilson , Samia R. Yamashita , Lawrence Yao , Joseph S. Yu , Natalie Zelenko , Michael B. Zlatkin , Adam C. Zoga







The role of fossil fuel combustion on the stability of dissolved iron in rainwater


Publication date: April 2015
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 107

Author(s): Joan D. Willey , Robert J. Kieber , Joshua J. Humphreys , Briana C. Rice , Mark J. Hopwood , G. Brooks Avery , Ralph N. Mead

The concentration of dissolved Fe(II) has decreased in coastal NC rainwater because of less complexation and stabilization of Fe(II) (aq) by automobile and coal combustion emissions. Better emission control has removed stabilizing organic ligands hence dissolved Fe(II) currently occurs more as inorganic iron, which is not protected against oxidation. Increasing rainwater pH allows oxidation by molecular O2 in addition to H2O2 and also increases the ratio of the ion pair Fe(OH)+ to Fe(II) free ion, which increases the oxidation rates by both H2O2 and molecular oxygen. The concentration of H2O2 in rain has increased; hydrogen peroxide is the primary oxidant of inorganic Fe(II) in precipitation. The East Coast of the USA is also receiving less rain of terrestrial origin, which tends to be higher in dissolved iron and organic compounds. All these factors operate in the same direction and contribute to the lower concentrations and lack of stability of Fe(II) in rainwater currently observed. Results of this study suggest that wet deposition of soluble Fe(II) is an episodic, temporally variable factor in the iron cycle in oceanic regions adjacent to developed or developing coastal regions.





Time variation in systematic risk, returns and trading volume: Evidence from precious metals mining stocks


Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
Source:International Review of Financial Analysis

Author(s): Cetin Ciner

We investigate whether trading volume has explanatory power for time variation in CAPM betas as well as returns, for the precious metals mining sector. We show that significant dependencies exist between these variables; however, empirical linkages are only revealed when quantile regression method is employed. The observed dynamics are particularly strong between trading volume and returns. We find that returns from lower (higher) quantiles have a negative (positive) relation with volume. We discuss the consistency of this asymmetric relation with equilibrium volume–return autocorrelation models suggested in prior work.





List of Contributors


Publication date: 2015
Source:Food, Energy, and Water

Author(s): Satinder Ahuja , Mark A. Benvenuto , Carleton R. Bern , Justin E. Birdwell , David Bromley , Lawrence B. Cahoon , Neera Chawla , Franz S. Ehrenhauser , Mark Engle , John W. Finley , Mark Fitch , Tanya J. Gallegos , Seth S. Haines , Aubrey A. Heath , Neha Mehta , Stephen P. Mezyk , Parimita Mohanty , Donna N. Myers , Shauna C. Otto , Nikul K. Patel , Elizabeth S. Roberts-Kirchhoff , Alexandra E. Schroeder , James N. Seiber , Shailesh N. Shah , Zachary R. Smith , Francis O’ Sullivan , Hessy L. Taft , Jim Thebaut , Tsanangurayi Tongesayi , Sunungurai Tongesayi , Akshay Tyagi , Mickael Vaitilingom , Kalliat T. Valsaraj , Kathrin D. Zimmerman







10 Coal Use as a Cause of Water Quality Impairment


Publication date: 2015
Source:Food, Energy, and Water

Author(s): Lawrence B. Cahoon

The use of coal as a major industrial fuel has prompted major public and policy concerns over impacts of coal use on air quality, including greenhouse gas emissions, and about storage of large amounts of coal ash in situations where ash spills and groundwater contamination by ash leachate have become problematic. Coal use has historically had significant impacts on water quality through several pathways, including direct impacts of mining activities on surface and groundwater, air pollution effects on surface waters (notably “acid rain” and mercury emissions), as well as other airborne toxicants and global warming impacts on the hydrological cycle, and through accumulation of truly massive quantities of coal ash at numerous waste storage sites. Coal ash contains many elements and a few organic compounds, reflecting coal's biological and geological origins, and many of those materials can be leached from coal ash, leading to contamination of surface and groundwater. Toxic metals commonly found in coal ash and in its leachates include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium, but many others may also be found, depending on the coal source. Alternative, benign uses of coal ash do not yet have the potential to consume the vast quantities of coal ash now extant, so costly mitigation practices are likely to be required to contain this environmental hazard.





A Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Social Capital, Self-Compassion and Perceived HIV Symptoms


Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
Source:Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

Author(s): Allison Webel , Dean Wantland , Carol Dawson Rose , Jeanne Kemppainen , William L. Holzemer , Wei-Ti Chen , Mallory O. Johnson , Patrice Nicholas , Lucille Sanzero Eller , Puangtip Chaiphibalsarisdi , Elizabeth Sefcik , Kathleen Nokes , Inge B. Corless , Lynda Tyer-Viola , Kenn Kirksey , Joachim Voss , Kathy Sullivan , Marta Rivero-Méndez , John Brion , Scholastika Iipinge , J. Craig Phillips , Carmen Portillo

Context Individual resources of social capital and self-compassion are associated with health behaviors and perceived symptoms, suggesting that both are positive resources that can be modified to improve a person’s symptom experience. Objectives To examine the relationship between self-compassion and social capital and its impact on current HIV symptom experience in adult people living with HIV (PLWH). We further explored the impact of age on this relationship. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2182 PLWH at 20 sites in five countries. Social capital, self-compassion, and HIV symptom experience were evaluated using valid and reliable scales. To account for inflated significance associated with a large sample size, we took a random sample of 28% of subjects (n=615) and conducted correlation analyses and zero inflated Poisson regression, controlling for known medical and demographic variables impacting HIV symptom experience. Results Controlling for age, sex at birth, year of HIV diagnosis, comorbid health conditions, employment and income, our model significantly predicted HIV symptom experience (overall model z =5.77, P<0.001). Employment status and social capital were consistent, negative and significant predictors of HIV symptom experience. Self-compassion did not significantly predict HIV symptom experience. If reporting symptoms, an increase in age was significantly associated with an increase in symptoms. Conclusion Employment and social capital modestly predicted current HIV symptom experience. Social capital can be incorporated into symptom management interventions, possibly as a way to reframe a person’s symptom appraisal. This may be increasingly important as PLWH age. The relationship between employment status and HIV symptom experience was significant and should be explored further.





Gray Matters: Teaching Geriatric Assessment for Family Nurse Practitioners Using Standardized Patients


Publication date: February 2015
Source:Clinical Simulation in Nursing, Volume 11, Issue 2

Author(s): Diane K. Pastor , Robin P. Cunningham , RuthAnne Kuiper

Research supporting use of standardized patients in health professional education is strong. Evidence suggests integrating the use of standardized patients into clinical training provides learners with interactive practice in gaining and perfecting clinical skills, in becoming competent in communication skills for provision of health care, and results in improved satisfaction for faculty and students. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was chosen as the focus of this simulation so that Family Nurse Practitioner students could begin to integrate theoretical course concepts into clinical experiences.





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