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Clinical significance of neuropsychological improvement after supplementation with omega-3 in 8-12 years old malnourished Mexican children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo and treatment clinical trial.


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Clinical significance of neuropsychological improvement after supplementation with omega-3 in 8-12 years old malnourished Mexican children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo and treatment clinical trial.

Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Apr;35(4):861-70

Authors: Portillo-Reyes V, Pérez-García M, Loya-Méndez Y, Puente AE

Abstract
It has been shown that supplementation with omega-3 improves cognitive performance, especially in infants and toddlers, but it is unknown whether these results are effective in older malnourished children. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate the omega-3 supplementation effects in 8- to 12-year-old children and to know which neuropsychological functions improve after three months of intervention in a sample of Mexican children with mild to moderate malnutrition. This study was a randomized, double-blind, treatment and placebo study of 59 children aged 8-12 years who were individually allocated to 2 groups. The duration of the intervention lasted 3 months. Neuropsychological performance was measured at baseline and at 3 months. Results show that more than 50% of children in the treatment group had greater improvement in 11 of the 18 neuropsychological variables studied. Processing speed, visual-motor coordination, perceptual integration, attention and executive function showed improvement in more than 70% of the omega-3 supplemented children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01199120.

PMID: 24508294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.


RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
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Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.


American Communication Journal; 06/01/2014
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The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.


Journal of Business & Technical Communication; 04/01/2014
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Self-service delight: Exploring the hedonic aspects of self-service


Publication date: Available online 23 October 2014
Source:Journal of Business Research

Author(s): Joel E. Collier , Donald C. Barnes

A majority of the previous self-service research has been completed in a utilitarian environment where concepts such as efficiency reign supreme. In a hedonic oriented self-service, efficiency may not be the only goal. In response to this question, the current research evaluates how task uncertainty, servicescape, perceived control and perceived time pressure impact efficiency and fun. The latter constructs are then linked directly to customer delight. Results indicate that in a hedonic oriented self-service environment fun alone is a significant predictor of customer delight. Managerial implications stemming from the empirical findings are discussed along with directions for future research.





Becoming the parent of a child with life-threatening food allergies


Publication date: Available online 17 October 2014
Source:Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Author(s): S. Brantlee Broome , Barbara J. Lutz , Christa Cook

Food induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious medical event and managing it can place tremendous mental, emotional and financial burdens on parents of children with FIA. Using grounded theory methods, the experiences of parents caring for a child with FIA and the adjustments and strategies used to effectively manage a child's diagnosis were examined. Findings revealed once a child is diagnosed with FIA, parental competency is often severely challenged, calling into question parents' ability to succeed in the parenting role. To regain parental competency, parents engage in a 3 phase process to learn how to parent a child with FIA.





Indirect effects and distributed control in ecosystems Comparative network environ analysis of a seven-compartment model of nitrogen storage in the Neuse River Estuary, USA: Time series analysis


Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014
Source:Ecological Modelling

Author(s): Stuart J. Whipple , Bernard C. Patten , Stuart R. Borrett

Compartmental, or “stock-and-flow”, models describe the storage and transfer of conservative energy or matter entering and leaving open systems. The storages are the standing “stocks”, and the intra-system and boundary transfers are transactional “flows”. Network environ analysis (NEA) provides network methods and perspectives for the quantitative analysis of compartment models. These emphasize the distinction between direct and indirect relationships between the compartments, and also with their environments. In NEA, each compartment in a system has an incoming network that brings energy or matter to it from the system’s boundary inputs, and an outgoing network that takes substance from it to boundary outputs. These networks are, respectively, input and output environs. Individual pathways in environs have an identity not unlike spaghetti in a bowl, each strand of which originates at some boundary input and terminates at some boundary output. All strands originating at the j’th input collectively comprise, no matter where they terminate, the j’th output environ; similarly, all strands terminating at the i’th output comprise, no matter where they originate, the i’th input environ. Thus, any substance freely mixing in the system as a whole runs in pathways consigned to one and only one output environ traced forward from its compartment of entry, and also one and only one input environ traced backward from its compartment of exit. The environs are partition elements – they decompose the interior stocks and flow according to their input origins and output destinations. Moreover, each environ’s dynamics and other systems and network properties are unique, and sum over all the environs to give the aggregate dynamics and properties of the whole. It is this composite, aggregate whole that empirical methods measure; empiricism unaided by theoretical analysis is blind to the environ pathways that actually compose the wholes. A previous study of nitrogen dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, USA (Whipple et al., 2007) described within-environ transfers using a throughflow-based network analysis, NEA-T. Throughflow (T in, T out) is the sum of flows into or out of each compartment. This paper extends this work using a companion storage-based methodology, NEA-S, re-notated from its antecedent and originating contributions (Barber, 1978a,b, 1979; Matis and Patten, 1981). Time-series data implementing 16 seasonal steady-state network models of nitrogen (N) storage and flow in the Neuse system were constructed for spring 1985 through winter 1989 by Christian and Thomas (2000, 2003). Network topology was constant over time, but the storage and transfer quantities changed. Environ analysis of this model showed that nitrogen storage and residence times differ within the different environs composing the compartments, and moreover, that these differences originate in the system’s interconnecting network as a whole. Thus, environs function within themselves as autonomous flow–storage units, but this individuality derives from, and at the same time contributes to the entire system’s properties. Environ autonomy is reflected in unique standing stocks and residence times, and whole empirical systems are formed as additive compositions of these. Because storage is durable and transfers ephemeral, storage environs revealed by NEA-S have more autonomy than flow environs computed using NEA-T. We quantified this autonomy by comparing the heterogeneity of extensive environs in models driven by actual inputs with intensive environs normalized to unit inputs. The former is more storage-heterogeneous than their unit reference counterparts, with dissolved nutrients NO x , DON, and NH4 exhibiting greatest heterogeneity. A previous NEA study of distributed control in this same model by Schramski et al. (2007) showed that NO x controls the system whereas sediment is controlled by the system. In the present study, NO x dominates storage in extensive environs, and therefore, is controlling in actuality. However, in the intensive unit, environs sediment accounted for most of the storage, reflecting greater control potential. This potential is expressed by the sediment acting like a capacitor for N, seasonally sequestering and releasing this element in the role of a biogeochemical regulator.





Predictors of children’s food selection: The role of children’s perceptions of the health and taste of foods


Publication date: March 2015
Source:Food Quality and Preference, Volume 40, Part A

Author(s): Simone P. Nguyen , Helana Girgis , Julia Robinson

Food selection, decisions about which foods to eat, is a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of taste versus health perceptions in 4- and 6-year-old children’s food selection. In this study, children and young adults were asked to rate the health and presumed taste of foods. Participants were also asked to indicate whether they would eat these foods in a food selection task. Overall, the results showed that taste was a strong predictor of individuals’ food selection above and beyond the variance associated with age, health ratings, and interactions between age and presumed taste ratings as well as age and health ratings. These results contribute to our understanding of children’s food selection, and the relative importance of a food’s taste versus health in the development of these decisions.





The Relationship between Body Esteem, Exercise Motivations, Depression, and Social Support among Female Free Clinic Patients


Publication date: Available online 11 October 2014
Source:Women's Health Issues

Author(s): Akiko Kamimura , Nancy Christensen , Sarah Al-Obaydi , Silvia Patricia Solis , Jeanie Ashby , Jessica L.J. Greenwood , Justine J. Reel

Purpose Obesity is a significant public health problem in women's health. This study examined relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients. Low-income women who are at risk for obesity and other health concerns would benefit from health education efforts. Methods We compared 299 female and 164 male free clinic patients 18 years or older using assessments for body esteem, motivation to exercise, depression, and social support. Results Although female participants reported lower levels of body esteem and higher levels of depression compared with male participants (p < .01), female participants were more motivated to exercise for weight-related reasons than male participants (p < .05). U.S.-born female participants reported lower exercise motivations compared with non–U.S.-born female participants (p < .01). Social support might be an important factor to increase exercise motivation among female free clinic patients (p < .05); depression lowers levels of body esteem (p < .01). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that female free clinic patients should receive gender-specific interventions to promote positive body image and physical activity. It is important for health educators to engage a myriad of physical activity motives to increase the likelihood that clients will experience enjoyment and sustained adoption of exercise into their lifestyle. Future practice and research should warrant the implementation of body image and physical activity programs and the potential impact of using exercise to reducing depression among female patients at free clinics.





Trophic influences on mercury accumulation in top pelagic predators from offshore New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean


Publication date: October 2014
Source:Marine Environmental Research, Volume 101

Author(s): Amy K. Teffer , Michelle D. Staudinger , David L. Taylor , Francis Juanes

Trophic pathways and size-based bioaccumulation rates of total mercury were evaluated among recreationally caught albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from offshore southern New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean between 2008 and 2011. Mercury concentrations were highest in mako (2.65 ± 1.16 ppm) and thresher sharks (0.87 ± 0.71 ppm), and significantly lower in teleosts (albacore, 0.45 ± 0.14 ppm; yellowfin, 0.32 ± 0.09 ppm; dolphinfish, 0.20 ± 0.17 ppm). The relationship between body size and mercury concentration was positive and linear for tunas, and positive and exponential for sharks and dolphinfish. Mercury increased exponentially with δ 15N values, a proxy for trophic position, across all species. Results demonstrate mercury levels are positively related to size, diet and trophic position in sharks, tunas, and dolphinfish, and the majority of fishes exhibited concentrations greater than the US EPA recommended limit.





Caffeine promotes autophagy in skeletal muscle cells by increasing the calcium-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase


Publication date: Available online 28 September 2014
Source:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Author(s): T.S. Mathew , R.K. Ferris , R.M. Downs , S.T. Kinsey , B.L. Baumgarner

Caffeine has been shown to promote calcium-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AMPK-dependent glucose and fatty acid uptake in mammalian skeletal muscle. Though caffeine has been shown to promote autophagy in various mammalian cell lines it is unclear if caffeine-induced autophagy is related to the calcium-dependent activation of AMPK. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of calcium-dependent AMPK activation in regulating caffeine-induced autophagy in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. We discovered that the addition of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C could significantly reduce the expression of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b-II (LC3b-II) and autophagic vesicle accumulation in caffeine treated skeletal muscle cells. Additional experiments using pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi) demonstrated that the calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinases CaMKKβ and CaMKII contributed to the AMPK-dependent expression of LC3b-II and autophagic vesicle accumulation in a caffeine dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that in skeletal muscle cells caffeine increases autophagy by promoting the calcium-dependent activation of AMPK.





EMF-250 An Emergency Department-to-Home Intervention to Improve Patient Activation


Publication date: October 2014
Source:Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 64, Issue 4, Supplement

Author(s): J.R. Schumacher , P. Hendry , A. Hall , B. Lutz , D.L. Carden







Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge


Publication date: 5 August 2014
Source:Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 149

Author(s): Jennifer L. Dixon , John R. Helms , Robert J. Kieber , G. Brooks Avery Jr.

This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (S R ). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and S R values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and a CDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. S R values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.





Simple Clinical Factors Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 70 Studies


Publication date: 1 September 2014
Source:International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 90, Issue 1, Supplement

Author(s): J. Zhao , L. Ling , E.D. Yorke , M.T. Milano , W. Liu , B. Kavanagh , A. Li , J. Andy , M. Lawrence , M. Miften , A. Rimner , S. Timothy , J. Xue , J. Grimm , F. Kong







The valuation of marine ecosystem goods and services in the Caribbean: A literature review and framework for future valuation efforts


Publication date: Available online 8 September 2014
Source:Ecosystem Services

Author(s): Peter W. Schuhmann , Robin Mahon

This paper reviews economic valuation of marine ecosystem services in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) for the three major marine ecosystems addressed by the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (CLME) Project: reef, pelagic and continental shelf. A review of over 200 value estimates suggests that marine economic valuations in the WCR have focused on a limited number of benefits derived from marine ecosystems, primarily those that are relatively easy to measure and convey, such as recreation opportunities in protected areas, and benefits that are ascribed to easily measured market indicators. Values associated with reefs have received far more attention than those associated with the pelagic or shelf ecosystems. The economic impacts of overfishing remain largely unexplored. Regulating and maintenance services provided by the marine ecosystems of the WCR have been recognized as important, but have not been linked to valuation. Finally, estimates of non-use values for WCR marine ecosystem goods and services are few. It is suggested that future work on valuation be coordinated among countries and agencies so that gaps can be prioritized and valuation studies can be directed toward a more comprehensive understanding of the full value of the goods and services provided by marine ecosystems in the WCR.





Association of Obesity in Early Adulthood and Middle Age With Incipient Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Structural Remodeling The CARDIA Study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)


Publication date: October 2014
Source:JACC: Heart Failure, Volume 2, Issue 5

Author(s): Satoru Kishi , Anderson C. Armstrong , Samuel S. Gidding , Laura A. Colangelo , Bharath A. Venkatesh , David R. Jacobs Jr. , J. Jeffery Carr , James G. Terry , Kiang Liu , David C. Goff Jr. , João A.C. Lima

Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and its 25-year change to left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Background Longstanding obesity may be associated with clinical cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Whether obesity relates to cardiac dysfunction during young adulthood and middle age has not been investigated. Methods The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult) study enrolled white and black adults ages 18 to 30 years in 1985 to 1986 (Year-0). At Year-25, cardiac function was assessed by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Twenty-five–year change in BMI (classified as low: <27 kg/m2 and high: ≥27 kg/m2) was categorized into 4 groups (Low-Low, High-Low, Low-High, and High-High). Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between categorical changes in BMI (Low-Low as reference) with LV structural and functional parameters obtained in middle age, adjusting for baseline and 25-year change in risk factors. Results The mean BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 in 3,265 participants included at Year-0. Change in BMI adjusted for risk factors was directly associated with incipient myocardial systolic dysfunction assessed by STE (High-High: β-coefficient = 0.67; Low-High: β-coefficient = 0.35 for longitudinal peak systolic strain) and diastolic dysfunction assessed by TDI (High-High: β-coefficient = −074; Low-High: β-coefficient = −0.45 for e′) and STE (High-High: β-coefficient = −0.06 for circumferential early diastolic strain rate). Greater BMI was also significantly associated with increased LV mass/height (High-High: β-coefficient = 26.11; Low-High: β-coefficient = 11.87). Conclusions Longstanding obesity from young adulthood to middle age is associated with impaired LV systolic and diastolic function assessed by conventional echocardiography, TDI, and STE in a large biracial cohort of adults age 43 to 55 years.





Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes


Publication date: December 2014
Source:Eating Behaviors, Volume 15, Issue 4

Author(s): Nick Galli , Trent A. Petrie , Christy Greenleaf , Justine J. Reel , Jennifer E. Carter

Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (M age =20.29, SD =1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes.





Nile Delta exhibited a spatial reversal in the rates of shoreline retreat on the Rosetta promontory comparing pre- and post-beach protection


Publication date: 1 January 2015
Source:Geomorphology, Volume 228

Author(s): Eman Ghoneim , Jehan Mashaly , Douglas Gamble , Joanne Halls , Mostafa AbuBakr

The coastline of the Nile Delta experienced accelerated erosion since the construction of the Aswan High Dam in 1964 and, consequently, the entrapment of a large amount of river sediments behind it. The coastline of the Rosetta promontory showed the highest erosion in the Delta with an average retreat rate of 137.4m year−1. In 1991, in an effort to mitigate sediment loss, a 4.85km long seawall was built on the outer margin of the promontory. For additional beach protection, 15 groins were constructed along the eastern and western sides of the seawall in 2003 and 2005. To quantify erosion and accretion patterns along the Rosetta promontory, 11 Landsat images acquired at unequal intervals during a 40year time span (1972 and 2012) were analyzed. The positions of shorelines were automatically extracted from satellite imagery and compared with three very high resolution QuickBird and WorldView2 images for data validation. Analysis of the rates of shoreline change revealed that the construction of the seawall was largely successful in halting the recession along the tip of the promontory, which lost 10.8km2 prior to coastal protection. Conversely, the construction of the 15 groins has negatively affected the coastal morphology of the promontory and caused a reversal from accretion to fast erosion along the promontory leeside, where some segments of the shoreline have undergone as much as 30.8m year−1 of erosion. Without hard structures, the tip of the Rosetta promontory would have retreated 2.3km by 2013 and lost 7.2km2 of land. About 10% of this land is deltaic fertile cultivated farms. Moreover, without additional protection the sides of the promontory will lose about 1.3km2 of land and the coastline would recede at an average rate of 200m by 2020. Unless action is taken, coastal erosion, enhanced by rising sea level, will steadily eat away the Nile Delta at an alarming rate. The successful demonstration of the advocated procedures in this study could be adopted, with appropriate modifications, for other deltas worldwide.





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