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Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.


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Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

J Exp Biol. 2014 Nov 13;

Authors: Harden LA, Duernberger KA, Jones TT, Williard AS

Abstract
Water and salt concentrations in an animal's body fluids can fluctuate with changing environmental conditions, posing osmoregulatory challenges that require behavioral and physiological adjustments. The purpose of this study was to investigate body water dynamics in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a species that undergoes seasonal dormancy in salt marsh habitats. We conducted a field study to determine the total body water (TBW%), water turnover rate (WTR), and daily water flux (DWF) of female terrapins in southeastern North Carolina pre- and post-emergence from winter dormancy. Terrapins were injected with [(2)H]deuterium on two occasions and washout of the isotope was monitored by taking successive blood samples during the period of transition from dormancy to activity. The WTR and DWF of 'dormant' terrapins were significantly lower than those of 'active' terrapins (WTR'dormant'= 49.70 ± 15.94 ml day(-1), WTR'active' = 100.20 ± 20.36 ml day(-1), DWF'dormant'= 10.52 ± 2.92 %TBW day(-1), DWF'active' = 21.84 ± 7.30 %TBW day(-1)). There was no significant difference in TBW% between 'dormant' and 'active' terrapins (75.05 ± 6.19% and 74.54 ± 4.36%, respectively). Results from this field study provides insight into the terrapin's ability to maintain osmotic homeostasis while experiencing shifts in behavioral and environmental conditions.

PMID: 25394625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.


RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
(AN 97901734)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.


American Communication Journal; 06/01/2014
(AN 97065126)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.


Journal of Business & Technical Communication; 04/01/2014
(AN 94842156)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

Recruitment of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in response to settlement cues and predation in North Carolina


Publication date: February 2015
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 463

Author(s): John M. Carroll , Kristin Riddle , Kelly E. Woods , Christopher M. Finelli

We conducted two field experiments to test the hypothesis that recruitment of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, could be enhanced through the selective deployment of artificial settlement cues. For both experiments, either dead shell or live oysters were cemented to patio blocks. In the first experiment, half of the blocks received discs that diffused the tri-peptide Glycyl-Glycyl-Arginine (GGR), a potent analog for natural settlement inducers, and only blocks with dead shell received GGR in the second experiment. Recruitment was therefore monitored on substrata with settlement cues (live oyster or shell with GGR) and no settlement cues (dead shell only). In our preliminary experiment (Experiment 1), recruitment of oysters was lower to blocks with live oyster or GGR, counter to our expectation. We repeated the experiment with the addition of anti-predation cage treatments (with partial cage controls). Again, we found no enhancement of recruitment to blocks with live oysters or with cue added. However, recruitment was significantly higher on blocks shielded from predation. These results suggest both a strong predator control in this system and that adding chemical cues are not likely to be an effective restoration strategy.





Ballot (and voter) “exhaustion” under Instant Runoff Voting: An examination of four ranked-choice elections


Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014
Source:Electoral Studies

Author(s): Craig M. Burnett , Vladimir Kogan

Some proponents of municipal election reform advocate for the adoption of Instant Runoff Voting (IRV), a method that allows voters to rank multiple candidates according to their preferences. Although supporters claim that IRV is superior to the traditional primary-runoff election system, research on IRV is limited. We analyze data taken from images of more than 600,000 ballots cast by voters in four recent local elections. We document a problem known as ballot “exhaustion,” which results in a substantial number of votes being discarded in each election. As a result of ballot exhaustion, the winner in all four of our cases receives less than a majority of the total votes cast, a finding that raises serious concerns about IRV and challenges a key argument made by the system’s proponents.





Dissolved iron(II) ligands in river and estuarine water


Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014
Source:Marine Chemistry

Author(s): M.J. Hopwood , P.J. Statham , S.A. Skrabal , J.D. Willey

We present the first evidence of Fe(II) complexation by natural organic ligands in estuarine waters. Across five diverse river/estuary systems we find evidence of terrestrially derived ligands with binding constants (log KFe(II)L) mainly in the range 6-8. These Fe(II) ligands were stable over short time periods (1-2 days), generally equivalent to, or in excess of, ambient freshwater Fe(II) concentrations (which ranged from 12 to 3600 nM) and had similar binding constants to ligands that were leached by water from vegetation and detritus (log KFe(II)L 7-8). A class of terrestrially derived ligands may therefore be important in stabilising Fe(II) concentrations in freshwater systems. However, in coastal seawater the impact of these ligands upon Fe(II) speciation is likely to be diminished due to a combination of dilution, loss of humic material during flocculation and increased ionic strength. The temperate and sub-tropical river systems studied included the Beaulieu (England), Itchen (England), Cape Fear (North Carolina, USA), Winyah Bay (South Carolina, USA) and Loch Etive (Scotland). Freshwaters in each system possessed a broad range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 200-1300 μM), labile dissolved Fe (LDFe, Fe <0.2 μm available to ferrozine after reduction with ascorbic acid, 100 nM-20 μM) and pH (5.5-8.5). In the Itchen estuary, where anthropogenic discharge constitutes >10% of freshwater input, ligand binding constants were elevated (up to log KFe(II)L 11) and the expected decrease in LDFe with increasing salinity along the estuary was not observed (LDFe and DOC both peaked at a salinity of 7) due to effluent inputs.





Traveling waves and competitive exclusion in models of resource competition and mating interference


Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014
Source:Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications

Author(s): Wei Feng , Xin Lu

In this article, we study reaction-diffusion models for two closed related biological species (u and v) under resource competition and mating interference from v-species to u-species. The effect of one-sided sexual competition makes the trivial state and u-dominance state both unstable, while the v-dominance state is shown to be asymptotically stable with attraction regions and convergent rates depending on the biological parameters. Using the upper-lower solution method, we further prove that for a family of wave speeds, there exist traveling wave solutions connecting the u-dominance state and the v-dominance state at ξ → ∓ ∞ . This confirms an earlier conjecture that unbalanced mating interference will lead to competitive exclusion. These results can also be obtained on an extended model with instantaneous effects of resource competition and temporal delay on mating interference. Through a transformation into three-equation system, we prove that the temporal delay does not affect the stability of the steady states and the existence of the traveling waves, but causes changes on the attraction regions and convergence rates. Finally, numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.





A comparison of network, neighborhood, and node levels of analyses in two models of nitrogen cycling in the Cape Fear River Estuary


Publication date: 10 December 2014
Source:Ecological Modelling, Volume 293

Author(s): David E. Hines , Stuart R. Borrett

Ecological network analysis is a set of algorithms that provide a holistic approach to the study of ecosystems. These analyses operate on at least three different hierarchical levels: network, neighborhood, and node. Network level analyses capture whole-system interactions and provide a broad view of the system; neighborhood level analyses provide relational information for specific parts or sub-networks; node level analyses offer descriptive characteristics of individual nodes. This work investigated the insights gained from each of these levels of analysis in an ecological network analysis case study. We compared two nitrogen cycling network models constructed at sites with different salinities, one oligohaline and one polyhaline, in the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA as a case study to demonstrate the differences between levels of analysis. We evaluated the nitrogen cycling models at both the network and node levels, and compared these results to existing results of a neighborhood level analysis. We further compared the ecological implications of the nitrogen network comparison produced by each hierarchical level to test the null hypotheses that there would be no difference between the conclusions resulting from these levels of analysis. We found that while network level analyses showed little difference between the two nitrogen models, differences with potential ecological importance for the availability of nutrients to phytoplankton could be seen using node level analyses. The results of the existing neighborhood level analyses exhibited characteristics with similarities to the results of both the network and node level analyses. We show that higher hierarchical levels, which integrate the information contained at the lower levels, can mask potentially important signals when describing network attributes. Therefore, we conclude that ecosystem networks should be analyzed at multiple hierarchical levels to provide a complete description of system function.





Introduction to the special issue “Systems Ecology: A Network Perspective and Retrospective”


Publication date: 10 December 2014
Source:Ecological Modelling, Volume 293

Author(s): Stuart R. Borrett , Brian D. Fath , Stuart J. Whipple







Impact of Initial Shunt Type on Cardiac Size and Function in Children With Single Right Ventricle Anomalies Before the Fontan Procedure The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Extension Trial


Publication date: 11 November 2014
Source:Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 64, Issue 19

Author(s): Peter C. Frommelt , Eric Gerstenberger , James F. Cnota , Meryl S. Cohen , Jessica Gorentz , Kevin D. Hill , J. Blaine John , Jami C. Levine , Jimmy Lu , William T. Mahle , Rachel T. McCandless , Luc Mertens , Gail D. Pearson , Carolyn Spencer , Deepika Thacker , Ismee A. Williams , Pierre C. Wong , Jane W. Newburger

Background In children with single right ventricular (RV) anomalies, changes in RV size and function may be influenced by shunt type chosen at the time of the Norwood procedure. Objectives The study sought to identify shunt-related differences in echocardiographic findings at 14 months and ≤6 months pre-Fontan in survivors of the Norwood procedure. Methods We compared 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic indices of RV size and function, neo-aortic and tricuspid valve annulus dimensions and function, and aortic size and patency at 14.1 ± 1.2 months and 33.6 ± 9.6 months in subjects randomized to a Norwood procedure using either the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (MBTS) or right ventricle to pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS). Results Acceptable echocardiograms were available at both time points in 240 subjects (114 MBTS, 126 RVPAS). At 14 months, all indices were similar between shunt groups. From the 14-month to pre-Fontan echocardiogram, the MBTS group had stable indexed RV volumes and ejection fraction, while the RVPAS group had increased RV end-systolic volume (p = 0.004) and decreased right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (p = 0.004). From 14 months to pre-Fontan, the treatment groups were similar with respect to decline in indexed neo-aortic valve area, >mild neo-aortic valve regurgitation (<5% at each time), indexed tricuspid valve area, and ≥moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation (<20% at each time). Conclusions Initial Norwood shunt type influences pre-Fontan RV remodeling during the second and third years of life in survivors with single RV anomalies, with greater RVEF deterioration after RVPAS. Encouragingly, other indices of RV function remain stable before Fontan regardless of shunt type. (Comparison of Two Types of Shunts in Infants with Single Ventricle Defect Undergoing Staged Reconstruction—Pediatric Heart Network; NCT00115934)





Simple Clinical Factors Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 70 Studies Treatment Toxicity


Publication date: 15 November 2014
Source:International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 90, Issue 5, Supplement

Author(s): J. Zhao , L. Ling , E.D. Yorke , M.T. Milano , W. Liu , B. Kavanagh , A. Li , J. Andy , M. Lawrence , M. Miften , A. Rimner , S. Timothy , J. Xue , J. Grimm , F. Kong







Effects of yoga on cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors


Publication date: Available online 30 October 2014
Source:Journal of Geriatric Oncology

Author(s): Lisa K. Sprod , Isabel D. Fernandez , Michelle C. Janelsins , Luke J. Peppone , James N. Atkins , Jeffrey Giguere , Robert Block , Karen M. Mustian

Background Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. Materials and Methods We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Results Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (p<0.05). Conclusions YOCAS©® is an effective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors.





Self-service delight: Exploring the hedonic aspects of self-service


Publication date: Available online 23 October 2014
Source:Journal of Business Research

Author(s): Joel E. Collier , Donald C. Barnes

A majority of the previous self-service research has been completed in a utilitarian environment where concepts such as efficiency reign supreme. In a hedonic oriented self-service, efficiency may not be the only goal. In response to this question, the current research evaluates how task uncertainty, servicescape, perceived control and perceived time pressure impact efficiency and fun. The latter constructs are then linked directly to customer delight. Results indicate that in a hedonic oriented self-service environment fun alone is a significant predictor of customer delight. Managerial implications stemming from the empirical findings are discussed along with directions for future research.





Becoming the Parent of a Child With Life-Threatening Food Allergies


Publication date: Available online 17 October 2014
Source:Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Author(s): Susan Brantlee Broome , Barbara J. Lutz , Christa Cook

Food induced anaphylaxis (FIA) is a serious medical event and managing it can place tremendous mental, emotional and financial burdens on parents of children with FIA. Using grounded theory methods, the experiences of parents caring for a child with FIA and the adjustments and strategies used to effectively manage a child's diagnosis were examined. Findings revealed once a child is diagnosed with FIA, parental competency is often severely challenged, calling into question parents' ability to succeed in the parenting role. To regain parental competency, parents engage in a 3 phase process to learn how to parent a child with FIA.





Indirect effects and distributed control in ecosystems Comparative network environ analysis of a seven-compartment model of nitrogen storage in the Neuse River Estuary, USA: Time series analysis


Publication date: 10 December 2014
Source:Ecological Modelling, Volume 293

Author(s): Stuart J. Whipple , Bernard C. Patten , Stuart R. Borrett

Compartmental, or “stock-and-flow”, models describe the storage and transfer of conservative energy or matter entering and leaving open systems. The storages are the standing “stocks”, and the intra-system and boundary transfers are transactional “flows”. Network environ analysis (NEA) provides network methods and perspectives for the quantitative analysis of compartment models. These emphasize the distinction between direct and indirect relationships between the compartments, and also with their environments. In NEA, each compartment in a system has an incoming network that brings energy or matter to it from the system’s boundary inputs, and an outgoing network that takes substance from it to boundary outputs. These networks are, respectively, input and output environs. Individual pathways in environs have an identity not unlike spaghetti in a bowl, each strand of which originates at some boundary input and terminates at some boundary output. All strands originating at the j’th input collectively comprise, no matter where they terminate, the j’th output environ; similarly, all strands terminating at the i’th output comprise, no matter where they originate, the i’th input environ. Thus, any substance freely mixing in the system as a whole runs in pathways consigned to one and only one output environ traced forward from its compartment of entry, and also one and only one input environ traced backward from its compartment of exit. The environs are partition elements – they decompose the interior stocks and flow according to their input origins and output destinations. Moreover, each environ’s dynamics and other systems and network properties are unique, and sum over all the environs to give the aggregate dynamics and properties of the whole. It is this composite, aggregate whole that empirical methods measure; empiricism unaided by theoretical analysis is blind to the environ pathways that actually compose the wholes. A previous study of nitrogen dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, USA (Whipple et al., 2007) described within-environ transfers using a throughflow-based network analysis, NEA-T. Throughflow (T in, T out) is the sum of flows into or out of each compartment. This paper extends this work using a companion storage-based methodology, NEA-S, re-notated from its antecedent and originating contributions (Barber, 1978a,b, 1979; Matis and Patten, 1981). Time-series data implementing 16 seasonal steady-state network models of nitrogen (N) storage and flow in the Neuse system were constructed for spring 1985 through winter 1989 by Christian and Thomas (2000, 2003). Network topology was constant over time, but the storage and transfer quantities changed. Environ analysis of this model showed that nitrogen storage and residence times differ within the different environs composing the compartments, and moreover, that these differences originate in the system’s interconnecting network as a whole. Thus, environs function within themselves as autonomous flow–storage units, but this individuality derives from, and at the same time contributes to the entire system’s properties. Environ autonomy is reflected in unique standing stocks and residence times, and whole empirical systems are formed as additive compositions of these. Because storage is durable and transfers ephemeral, storage environs revealed by NEA-S have more autonomy than flow environs computed using NEA-T. We quantified this autonomy by comparing the heterogeneity of extensive environs in models driven by actual inputs with intensive environs normalized to unit inputs. The former is more storage-heterogeneous than their unit reference counterparts, with dissolved nutrients NO x , DON, and NH4 exhibiting greatest heterogeneity. A previous NEA study of distributed control in this same model by Schramski et al. (2007) showed that NO x controls the system whereas sediment is controlled by the system. In the present study, NO x dominates storage in extensive environs, and therefore, is controlling in actuality. However, in the intensive unit, environs sediment accounted for most of the storage, reflecting greater control potential. This potential is expressed by the sediment acting like a capacitor for N, seasonally sequestering and releasing this element in the role of a biogeochemical regulator.





Predictors of children’s food selection: The role of children’s perceptions of the health and taste of foods


Publication date: March 2015
Source:Food Quality and Preference, Volume 40, Part A

Author(s): Simone P. Nguyen , Helana Girgis , Julia Robinson

Food selection, decisions about which foods to eat, is a ubiquitous part of our everyday lives. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of taste versus health perceptions in 4- and 6-year-old children’s food selection. In this study, children and young adults were asked to rate the health and presumed taste of foods. Participants were also asked to indicate whether they would eat these foods in a food selection task. Overall, the results showed that taste was a strong predictor of individuals’ food selection above and beyond the variance associated with age, health ratings, and interactions between age and presumed taste ratings as well as age and health ratings. These results contribute to our understanding of children’s food selection, and the relative importance of a food’s taste versus health in the development of these decisions.





The Relationship between Body Esteem, Exercise Motivations, Depression, and Social Support Among Female Free Clinic Patients


Publication date: November–December 2014
Source:Women's Health Issues, Volume 24, Issue 6

Author(s): Akiko Kamimura , Nancy Christensen , Sarah Al-Obaydi , Silvia Patricia Solis , Jeanie Ashby , Jessica L.J. Greenwood , Justine J. Reel

Purpose Obesity is a significant public health problem in women's health. This study examined relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients. Low-income women who are at risk for obesity and other health concerns would benefit from health education efforts. Methods We compared 299 female and 164 male free clinic patients 18 years or older using assessments for body esteem, motivation to exercise, depression, and social support. Results Although female participants reported lower levels of body esteem and higher levels of depression compared with male participants (p < .01), female participants were more motivated to exercise for weight-related reasons than male participants (p < .05). U.S.-born female participants reported lower exercise motivations compared with non–U.S.-born female participants (p < .01). Social support might be an important factor to increase exercise motivation among female free clinic patients (p < .05); depression lowers levels of body esteem (p < .01). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that female free clinic patients should receive gender-specific interventions to promote positive body image and physical activity. It is important for health educators to engage a myriad of physical activity motives to increase the likelihood that clients will experience enjoyment and sustained adoption of exercise into their lifestyle. Future practice and research should warrant the implementation of body image and physical activity programs and the potential impact of using exercise to reducing depression among female patients at free clinics.





Trophic influences on mercury accumulation in top pelagic predators from offshore New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean


Publication date: October 2014
Source:Marine Environmental Research, Volume 101

Author(s): Amy K. Teffer , Michelle D. Staudinger , David L. Taylor , Francis Juanes

Trophic pathways and size-based bioaccumulation rates of total mercury were evaluated among recreationally caught albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus), and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from offshore southern New England waters of the northwest Atlantic Ocean between 2008 and 2011. Mercury concentrations were highest in mako (2.65 ± 1.16 ppm) and thresher sharks (0.87 ± 0.71 ppm), and significantly lower in teleosts (albacore, 0.45 ± 0.14 ppm; yellowfin, 0.32 ± 0.09 ppm; dolphinfish, 0.20 ± 0.17 ppm). The relationship between body size and mercury concentration was positive and linear for tunas, and positive and exponential for sharks and dolphinfish. Mercury increased exponentially with δ 15N values, a proxy for trophic position, across all species. Results demonstrate mercury levels are positively related to size, diet and trophic position in sharks, tunas, and dolphinfish, and the majority of fishes exhibited concentrations greater than the US EPA recommended limit.





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