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A new cytotoxicity assay for brevetoxins using fluorescence microscopy.

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A new cytotoxicity assay for brevetoxins using fluorescence microscopy.

Mar Drugs. 2014 Sep;12(9):4868-82

Authors: McCall JR, Elliott EA, Bourdelais AJ

Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-framed polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Consumption of shellfish or finfish exposed to brevetoxins can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are believed to be due to the activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cell membranes. The traditional cytotoxicity assay for detection of brevetoxins uses the Neuro-2A cell line, which must first be treated with the neurotoxins, ouabain and veratridine, in order to become sensitive to brevetoxins. In this study, we demonstrate several drawbacks of the Neuro-2A assay, which include variability for the EC50 values for brevetoxin and non-linear triphasic dose response curves. Ouabain/ veratridine-treated Neuro-2A cells do not show a typical sigmoidal dose response curve in response to brevetoxin, but rather, have a polynomial shaped curve, which makes calculating EC50 values highly variable. We describe a new fluorescence live cell imaging model, which allows for accurate calculation of cytotoxicity via nuclear staining and additional measurement of other viability parameters depending on which aspect of the cell is stained. In addition, the SJCRH30 cell line shows promise as an alternative to Neuro-2A cells for testing brevetoxins without the need for ouabain and veratridine.

PMID: 25251033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations).

Developmental Psychology; 06/01/2014
(AN 96249186)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Applying a Resiliency Model to Community Reintegration and Needs in Families with Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Rehabilitation Counselors.

Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling; 03/01/2014
(AN 95045799)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Introduction to the Special Issue on Queer/ing Criminology: New Directions and Frameworks.

Critical Criminology; 03/01/2014
(AN 94317402)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Success or sorrow: the paradoxical view of crime control campaigns in China.

International Journal of Comparative & Applied Criminal Justice; 01/01/2014
(AN 93018776)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Use of Craniofacial Superimposition in Historic Investigation.

Journal of Forensic Sciences (Wiley-Blackwell); 01/01/2014
(AN 93569166)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

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The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model: Part 2—Clinical Application

Publication date: Available online 3 August 2015
Source:The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

Author(s): Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Sean M. O’Brien, Sara K. Pasquali, J. William Gaynor, John E. Mayer, Tara Karamlou, Karl F. Welke, Giovanni Filardo, Jane M. Han, Sunghee Kim, James A. Quintessenza, Christian Pizarro, Christo I. Tchervenkov, Francois Lacour-Gayet, Constantine Mavroudis, Carl L. Backer, Erle H. Austin, Charles D. Fraser, James S. Tweddell, Richard A. Jonas, Fred H. Edwards, Frederick L. Grover, Richard L. Prager, David M. Shahian, Marshall L. Jacobs

Background The empirically derived 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model incorporates adjustment for procedure type and patient-specific factors. The purpose of this report is to describe this model and its application in the assessment of variation in outcomes across centers. Methods All index cardiac operations in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013) were eligible for inclusion. Isolated patent ductus arteriosus closures in patients weighing less than or equal to 2.5 kg were excluded, as were centers with more than 10% missing data and patients with missing data for key variables. The model includes the following covariates: primary procedure, age, any prior cardiovascular operation, any noncardiac abnormality, any chromosomal abnormality or syndrome, important preoperative factors (mechanical circulatory support, shock persisting at time of operation, mechanical ventilation, renal failure requiring dialysis or renal dysfunction (or both), and neurological deficit), any other preoperative factor, prematurity (neonates and infants), and weight (neonates and infants). Variation across centers was assessed. Centers for which the 95% confidence interval for the observed-to-expected mortality ratio does not include unity are identified as lower-performing or higher-performing programs with respect to operative mortality. Results Included were 52,224 operations from 86 centers. Overall discharge mortality was 3.7% (1,931 of 52,224). Discharge mortality by age category was neonates, 10.1% (1,129 of 11,144); infants, 3.0% (564 of 18,554), children, 0.9% (167 of 18,407), and adults, 1.7% (71 of 4,119). For all patients, 12 of 86 centers (14%) were lower-performing programs, 67 (78%) were not outliers, and 7 (8%) were higher-performing programs. Conclusions The 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model facilitates description of outcomes (mortality) adjusted for procedural and for patient-level factors. Identification of low-performing and high-performing programs may be useful in facilitating quality improvement efforts.

Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

Publication date: 15 December 2015
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volume 538

Author(s): Chuangneng Lou, Xiaodong Liu, Yaguang Nie, Steven D. Emslie

To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation.
Graphical abstract

Population dynamics of giant barrel sponges on Florida coral reefs

Publication date: December 2015
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 473

Author(s): Steven E. McMurray, Christopher M. Finelli, Joseph R. Pawlik

The structure of coral reef benthic communities has changed significantly in recent decades and will likely continue to change with the increasing frequency and scale of disturbances. Reef-building corals and macroalgae have been regularly included in assessments of coral reef communities, however very little is known about the long-term dynamics of sponge populations. The giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta is a dominant component of Caribbean coral reef communities, and it was previously reported that populations significantly increased in the Florida Keys over 2000–2006. Using surveys of sponges from the same permanent plots on reefs off Key Largo, Florida, USA, this study extended the investigation of the population dynamics of X. muta for 2000–2012 at three depths (15, 20, 30m). Over 12years, the density of X. muta significantly increased by a mean of 122% (range=53–336%) on Conch Reef and by a mean of 44% on Pickles Reef. Both the cover and volume of X. muta concomitantly increased at all sites and increases in both metrics were greater over 2006–2012 relative to 2000–2006 due to decreased mortality of the largest sponges in the population over time. Population growth accelerated at all sites on Conch Reef due to a significant increase in recruitment and sponge survival, and was greater at deeper relative to shallow depths; on Pickles Reef, recruitment decreased, but survival increased and population growth remained constant over time. Despite mortality due to putative pathogenesis, and in contrast to the persistent decline of reef-building corals, these results suggest that conditions on Florida coral reefs have been increasingly favorable for the growth of barrel sponge populations. Given the long lifespan of X. muta, it remains to be seen whether these results represent a persistent change with broad geographic relevance, or stochastic variation in local demographics.

Couple similarity on stimulus characteristics and marital satisfaction

Publication date: November 2015
Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 86

Author(s): Darren George, Shanhong Luo, Jared Webb, Jennifer Pugh, Alan Martinez, Jeremy Foulston

Murstein's (1970) “stimulus–value–role” theory suggests that mate selection consists of three stages. At each stage people seek different types of information. This study extends previous research on couple similarity by focusing on the “stimulus” stage where people attend to stimulus information—the most salient personal information. This stage has received less attention than the “value” and “role” stages. A sample of 641 married couples from Central Alberta, Canada provided information on a wide range of stimulus characteristics including background, physical and perceptual variables, as well as spirituality and growth orientation for comparison. Correlation results showed evidence for strong and consistent couple similarity on stimulus characteristics, suggesting that those characteristics are important domains to partner selection. Structural equation modeling results indicated that couple similarity (measured by absolute and directional difference score) overall was not a strong predictor of marital satisfaction; however, discrepancies in age, spirituality, and growth orientation were significant predictors of dissatisfaction.

The clinimetric properties of aerobic and anaerobic fitness measures in adults with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of the literature

Publication date: October–November 2015
Source:Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volumes 45–46

Author(s): Nancy Lennon, Deborah Thorpe, Astrid C. Balemans, Maria Fragala-Pinkham, Margaret O’Neil, Kristie Bjornson, Roslyn Boyd, Annet J. Dallmeijer

Objective To analyze the clinimetric properties of maximal aerobic and anaerobic fitness measurement protocols in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Data Sources A systematic search through March 2015 of databases PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus and PsycINFO was performed with medical subject heading terms for ‘cerebral palsy’ combined with search terms adults or adolescents and multiple text words for fitness and exercise tests that yielded 864 articles. Study Selection Abstracts were screened by two reviewers to identify use of maximal fitness measurements in adolescents (14–18yrs) or adults (>18yrs) with CP of all abilities. Ninety-four articles were reviewed. No studies of adolescent (14–18yrs) qualified. Eight articles reported clinimetric properties for adults with CP who walk or propel a wheelchair independently. Five articles reported on aerobic capacity, one reported on anaerobic capacity and two reported on both. Data Extraction Methodological quality of the studies was rated using portions of the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) checklist. Quality of the measurement protocols was evaluated based on statistical strength of the clinimetrics. Synthesis of the overall evidence was based on the Cochrane review group guidelines which combine methodological quality and statistical strength. Data Synthesis Eight articles reported on 4 aerobic and 1 anaerobic protocols. Overall synthesis revealed that for ambulatory adults with CP there is (i) moderate evidence for good reliability and good construct validity of maximal aerobic and anaerobic cycle tests, (ii) moderate evidence for good criterion validity of sub-maximal aerobic cycle tests, and (iii) strong evidence for poor criterion validity of the six-minute walk test as a maximal aerobic test. And for adults who propel a wheelchair there is limited evidence of good reliability for maximal aerobic wheelchair ergometer tests. Conclusions Limited quality research exists on the clinimetric properties of aerobic and anaerobic capacity measures for adults with CP who have independent mobility. Quality aerobic and anaerobic measures for adults with more severe mobility impairments are absent.

Associations Between Day of Admission and Day of Surgery on Outcome and Resource Utilization in Infants With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Who Underwent Stage I Palliation (from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial)

Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
Source:The American Journal of Cardiology

Author(s): Joyce T. Johnson, Lynn A. Sleeper, Shan Chen, Richard G. Ohye, Michael G. Gaies, Ismee A. Williams, Ritu Sachdeva, Jay D. Pruetz, Gregory H. Tatum, Deepika Thacker, Marissa A. Brunetti, Michele A. Frommelt, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Joel A. Kirsh, Linda M. Lambert, Jane W. Newburger, Victoria L. Pemberton, Sinai C. Zyblewski, Allison A. Divanovic, Nelangi M. Pinto

Newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other single right ventricular variants require substantial health care resources. Weekend acute care has been associated with worse outcomes and increased resource use in other populations but has not been studied in patients with single ventricle. Subjects of the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial were classified by whether they had a weekend admission and by day of the week of Norwood procedure. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes included transplant-free survival, intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and days of mechanical ventilation. The Student's t test with log transformation and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to analyze associations. Admission day was categorized for 533 of 549 subjects (13% weekend). The day of the Norwood was Thursday/Friday in 39%. There was no difference in median hospital LOS, transplant-free survival, ICU LOS, or days ventilated for weekend versus non-weekend admissions. Day of the Norwood procedure was not associated with a difference in hospital LOS, transplant-free survival, ICU LOS, or days ventilated. Prenatally diagnosed infants born on the weekend had lower mean birth weight, younger gestational age, and were more likely to be intubated but did not have a difference in measured outcomes. In conclusion, in this cohort of patients with single right ventricle, neither weekend admission nor end-of-the-week Norwood procedure was associated with increased use of hospital resources or poorer outcomes. We speculate that the complex postoperative course following the Norwood procedure outweighs any impact that day of admission or operation may have on these outcomes.


Publication date: August 2015
Source:Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Volume 19, Issue 4

Author(s): Scott R. Lambert, Phoebe D. Lenhart, Marlen Leon, Amy K. Hutchinson