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Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

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Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

Adv Mar Biol. 2014;69:205-51

Authors: Botsford LW, White JW, Carr MH, Caselle JE

California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability.

PMID: 25358301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Mid-Pliocene shorelines of the US Atlantic coastal plain – an improved elevation database with comparison to Earth model predictions

Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
Source:Earth-Science Reviews

Author(s): A. Rovere , P.J. Hearty , J. Austermann , J.X. Mitrovica , J. Gale , R. Moucha , A.M. Forte , M.E. Raymo

For nearly a century, the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) of the United States has been the focus of studies investigating Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines, however, the mapping of paleoshorelines was primarily done by using elevation contours on topographic maps. Here we review published geologic maps and compare them to paleoshoreline locations obtained through geomorphometric classification and satellite data. We furthermore present the results of an extensive field campaign that measured the mid-Pliocene (~3.3 – 2.9 Ma) shorelines of the Atlantic Coastal Plain using high-accuracy GPS and Digital Elevation Models. We compare our new dataset to positions and elevations extracted from published maps and find that the extracted site information from earlier studies is prone to significant error, both in the location and, more severely, in the elevation of the paleoshoreline. We also investigate, using geophysical modeling, the origin of post-depositional displacement of the shoreline from Georgia to Virginia. In particular, we correct the elevation of our shoreline for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and then compare the corrected elevation to predictions of mantle flow-induced dynamic topography (DT). While a subset of these models do reconcile the general trends in the observed elevation of the mid-Pliocene shoreline, local discrepancies persist. These discrepancies suggests that either: (i) the DT and GIA models presented here do not capture the full range of uncertainty in the input parameters; and/or (ii) other influences, such as sediment loading and unloading or local fault-driven tectonics, may have contributed to post-depositional deformation of the mid-Pliocene shoreline that are not captured in the above models. In this context, our field measurements represent an important observational dataset with which to compare future generations of geodynamic models. Improvements in models for DT, GIA and other relevant processes, together with an expanded, geographically distributed set of shoreline records, will ultimately be the key to obtaining more accurate estimates of eustatic sea level not only in the mid-Pliocene but also earlier in the Cenozoic.


Publication date: 2016
Source:Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Author(s): A. Omar Abubaker , Julio Acero , Ravi Agarwal , Tara Aghaloo , Kyle P. Allen , Dror M. Allon , Brian Alpert , Mehmet Ali Altay , Joan Pi-Anfruns , Shyam Prasad Aravindaksha , Sharon Aronovich , Leon Assael , Shahid R. Aziz , Shahrokh C. Bagheri , Jonathan Bailey , Conor Barry , Brian Bast , Dale A. Baur , Robert A. Bays , R. Bryan Bell , Curtis M. Bishop , David A. Bitonti , Behnam Bohluli , Genevieve C. Bonin , Nicholas Breig , Hans C. Brockhoff II , Carolyn Brookes , Benjaman R. Brown , Daniel Buchbinder , Tuan G. Bui , John F. Caccamese Jr. , Ron Caloss , Eric R. Carlson , Swagnik Chakrabarti , Ravi Chandran , Allen Cheng , Radhika Chigurupati , Nam Cho , Joli C. Chou , Joseph E. Cillo Jr. , Casper Coppen , Bernard J. Costello , David A. Cottrell , Larry Cunningham Jr. , William J. Curtis , Patrick S. Dalton , Jeffrey S. Dean , Max Diamante , Eric Dierks , Jasjit Dillon , Stephanie Joy Drew , Donita Dyalram , Sean P. Edwards , Hany A. Emam , Mark Engelstad , Helamen P. Erickson , Maria Evasovich , Joseph J. Fantuzzo , Sam E. Farish , Tirbod Fattahi , Rui P. Fernandes , Richard A. Finn , Peter B. Franco , David Gailey , Ignacio Ismael Garcia-Recuero , Michael A. Gentile , Ghali Ghali , Sabine C. Girod , Brent Golden , Jorge Gonzalez , Marianela Gonzalez , Srinivas Gosla , Eric J. Granquist , Trevor Griffitts , Cesar A. Guerrero , Kevin P. Hall , David Hamlar , Andrew A. Heggie , Mariana Henriquez , Alan S. Herford , James E. Hinrichs , David L. Hirsch , Anthony D. Holmes , James B. Holton , Mehran Hossaini-Zadeh , Reem H. Hossameldin , Pamela J. Hughes , Bong Joon Jang , Michael S. Jaskolka , Ole T. Jensen , Lewis C. Jones , Deepak Kademani , David R. Kang , Herman Kao , Vasiliki Karlis , Ruba Khader , D. David Kim , Blake Kitamura , Carrie A. Klene , Antonia Kolokythas , Georgios A. Kotsakis , Jack H. Koumjian , Deepak G. Krishnan , Moni Abraham Kuriakose , George M. Kushner , Andrew J. Langston , Donald E. Lareau , Zvi Laster , Andrew Wing Cheong Lee , Jessica J. Lee , James B. Lewallen , Christian A. Loetscher , Patrick J. Louis , Tyman P. Loveless , Joshua E. Lubek , David W. Lui , Stephen P.R. MacLeod , Colin MacIver , Matthew Madsen , Nicholas M. Makhoul , Ashley E. Manlove , Michael R. Markiewicz , Kevin L. McBride , Joseph P. McCain , J. Michael McCoy , Samuel J. McKenna , Daniel J. Meara , Paulo Jose Medeiros , Pushkar Mehra , Andrew Meram , Louis G. Mercuri , Brett A. Miles , Justine Moe , Anthony B.P. Morlandt , Christopher Morris , Reza Movahed , Elena Mujica , Gregory M. Ness , Craig Norbutt , George Obeid , Devin Joseph Okay , Albert D. Oliphant , Robert Ord , Daniel Oreadi , James Owusu , Neeraj Panchal , Sat Parmar , Ashish A. Patel , Ketan Patel , Zachary S. Peacock , Karl E. Pennau , Vincent J. Perciaccante , Jon D. Perenack , Laurence D. Pfeiffer , John N. Phelan , Brendan H.G. Pierce , Jeffrey C. Posnick , David B. Powers , Janine Prange-Kiel , David S. Precious , Faisal A. Quereshy , Peter D. Quinn , Carlos A. Ramirez , Alexander D. Rapidis , Likith Reddy , Shravan Renapurkar , Amy M. Respondek , Fabio G. Ritto , Jason Rogers , Peter S. Roland , Ramon L. Ruiz , Mary Ann Sabino , Andrew Salama , Nabil Samman , Sebastian Sauerbier , Thomas Schlieve , Edward R. Schlissel , Rainer Schmelzeisen , Brian L. Schmidt , Jocelyn M. Shand , Brett Shirley , Douglas P. Sinn , Kevin Smith , Miller H. Smith , Daniel Spagnoli , Martin B. Steed , Mark R. Stevens , Srinivas M. Susarla , Lance W. Svoboda , Rahul Tandon , Jayini Thakker , Stone Thayer , Paul S. Tiwana , Trevor E. Treasure , David C. Trent , John D. Triggs , R. Gibert Triplett , Timothy A. Turvey , Joseph E. Van , Luis Vega , Craig E. Vigliante , John Vorrasi , Peter Waite , Zhaoling Wang , Brent B. Ward , Fayette C. Williams , Jennifer E. Woerner , Larry M. Wolford , Brian M. Woo , Duke Yamashita , David Yates , Melvyn Yeoh , Stanley Yung-Chuan Liu , Waleed Y. Zaid , George Zakhary , Michael Zide , John Zuniga

δ13C and δ15N in deep-living fishes and shrimps after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico

Publication date: Available online 14 March 2015
Source:Marine Pollution Bulletin

Author(s): Ester Quintana-Rizzo , Joseph J. Torres , Steve W. Ross , Isabel Romero , Kathleen Watson , Ethan Goddard , David Hollander

The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drill-rig produced a surface oil layer, dispersed micro-droplets throughout the water column, and sub-surface plumes. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in mesopelagic fishes and shrimps in the vicinity of DWH collected prior to, six weeks after, and one year after the oil spill (2007, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, the year of the oil spill, a small but significant depletion of δ13C was found in two mesopelagic fishes (Gonostoma elongatum and Chauliodus sloani) and one shrimp (Systellaspis debilis); a significant δ15N enrichment was identified in the same shrimp and in three fish species (G. elongatum, Ceratoscopelus warmingii, and Lepidophanes guentheri). The δ15N change did not suggest a change of trophic level, but did indicate a change in diet. The data suggest that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was incorporated into the mesopelagic food web of the Gulf of Mexico.

A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

Publication date: 15 April 2015
Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 114

Author(s): Sérgio P. Ávila , Carlos Melo , Luís Silva , Ricardo S. Ramalho , Rui Quartau , Ana Hipólito , Ricardo Cordeiro , Ana Cristina Rebelo , Patrícia Madeira , Alessio Rovere , Paul J. Hearty , Diamantino Henriques , Carlos Marques da Silva , António M. de Frias Martins , Caridad Zazo

The privileged location of Santa Maria Island (Azores archipelago) in the middle of the North Atlantic makes the fossiliferous outcrops on this island of utmost importance to gain a better understanding of how coeval living communities relate to the broader evolutionary and biogeographic history of the Atlantic basin during the late Neogene and the Quaternary. Here we focus on this island's MIS 5e fossil record, offering a comprehensive review on the palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the biota living in the mid North Atlantic during this interglacial. Several studies in oceanic islands stress the huge impact of sea level changes on insular communities. Pleistocene sea-level changes occur during the short-time events known as “Terminations” (associated to glacial/interglacial shifts) as well as with the onset of glaciations (associated to interglacial/glacial shifts). Both are responsible for extinctions and local disappearance of species, bottleneck effects and formation of new species, resulting in community structure changes. This work increases the number of fossil marine taxa reported from the Last Interglacial deposits of Santa Maria to 143 species. All the 19 new records are molluscs (13 gastropods and 6 bivalves), thus increasing the number of fossil molluscs to 136 species. Although thermophilic members of the “Senegalese” tropical fauna were found in these deposits, many of the most emblematic species (e.g., Persististrombus latus (=Strombus bubonius), Cymbula safiana, Harpa doris, Cardita senegalensis, Barbatia plicata, Ctena eburnea or Hyotissa hyotis) are absent, suggesting that they did not reach the Azores. Our results indicate that the main differences between the species composition of the MIS 5e and the present-day shallow-water Azorean communities are probably due to the dropping of sea surface temperature associated with the onset of the last glaciation, which had both direct and indirect effects on species ecology. A group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.