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Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs


Title: Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs
Author(s): Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R.
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 111 (11): 4151-4156 MAR 18 2014
Document Type: Article

A spatial analysis of population dynamics and climate change in Africa: potential vulnerability hot spots emerge where precipitation declines and demographic pressures coincide


Title: A spatial analysis of population dynamics and climate change in Africa: potential vulnerability hot spots emerge where precipitation declines and demographic pressures coincide
Author(s): Lopez-Carr, David; Pricope, Narcisa G.; Aukema, Juliann E.; et al.
Source: POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT, 35 (3): 323-339 MAR 2014
Document Type: Article

Psychosocial Concerns of Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom


Title: Psychosocial Concerns of Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom
Author(s): Strong, Jessica; Ray, Kathleen; Findley, Patricia A.; et al.
Source: HEALTH & SOCIAL WORK, 39 (1): 17-24 FEB 2014
Document Type: Article

Mutual inclusion in a nonlocal competitive Lotka Volterra system


Title: Mutual inclusion in a nonlocal competitive Lotka Volterra system
Author(s): Hou, Xiaojie; Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhengce
Source: JAPAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS, 31 (1): 87-110 2014
Document Type: Article

Women, worms and work: Implications of conservation management and declining biodiversity on subsistence practices and health of Aka populations in the Congo Basin


Title: Women, worms and work: Implications of conservation management and declining biodiversity on subsistence practices and health of Aka populations in the Congo Basin
Author(s): Robinson, Carolyn A. Jost; Remis, Melissa J.; Petrzelkova, Klara J.; et al.
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 153 (Suppl. 58, Sp. Iss. SI): 154 2014
Document Type: Meeting

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Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: Case studies of two polar seabirds


Publication date: 15 October 2013
Source:Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 75, Issues 1–2

Author(s): Rebecka L. Brasso , Michael J. Polito

The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ15N values for baseline δ15N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ15N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators.





What-Where-When memory in the rodent Odor Span Task


Publication date: Available online 13 April 2014
Source:Learning and Motivation

Author(s): Carrie L. Branch , Mark Galizio , Katherine Bruce

While the Odor Span Task (OST) was developed to assess working memory in rodents, it appears that odor (“What”) and time since an odor was last reinforced (“When”) jointly control responding in the OST. The OST uses an incrementing non-match to sample procedure such that the number of stimuli to remember increases during the session; the rodent is trained to remember stimuli within a session but not between sessions. We used a variation of the OST to add a “Where” dimension to the task to examine whether rodents could learn to respond to scents based on contextual cues as well. In Experiment 1, six rats well-trained on the OST procedure were exposed to four target scents in a holding cage before the OST session began [What-Where-When (WWW) condition]. When these target scents appeared in the OST, rats treated them as novel scents despite their being previously encountered that day; WWW responding was comparable to baseline (BL) responding. Controls were implemented to account for relative familiarity: frequency of target presentation and time since the target odor was presented. On both types of control probes, rats typically responded to target scents less than during WWW or BL conditions, took longer to make a response, and visited more comparison stimuli. In Experiment 2, the study was replicated adding reinforcement delivery for responding to pre-session presentation of target stimuli. Subjects were the same six rats plus two additional rats also well-trained on the OST. Results were similar to those from Experiment 1. These data indicate that the variables controlling performance on the OST task include What stimulus is presented, Where (i.e., in which location) it was presented, and When it was presented. Thus, the OST-probe methodology may provide a useful vehicle for the study of episodic-like memory processes in non-humans.





Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the Southeastern North Carolina


Publication date: July 2014
Source:Chemosphere, Volume 107

Author(s): Katherine M. Mullaugh , Jade N. Byrd , G. Brooks Avery Jr. , Ralph N. Mead , Joan D. Willey , Robert J. Kieber

Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute <1% of total dissolved organic carbon in rain, but can account for as much as 10–35% during periods of high pollen or local fires. Concentrations of individual carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.





Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea


Publication date: June 2014
Source:Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 88

Author(s): Lea-Anne Henry , Norbert Frank , Dierk Hebbeln , Claudia Wienberg , Laura Robinson , Tina van de Flierdt , Mikael Dahl , Mélanie Douarin , Cheryl L. Morrison , Matthias López Correa , Alex D. Rogers , Mario Ruckelshausen , J. Murray Roberts

General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth׳s largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium–thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.
Graphical abstract




The rise of Network Ecology: Maps of the topic diversity and scientific collaboration


Publication date: Available online 21 March 2014
Source:Ecological Modelling

Author(s): Stuart R. Borrett , James Moody , Achim Edelmann

Network ecologists investigate the structure, function, and evolution of ecological systems using network models and analyses. For example, network techniques have been used to study community interactions (i.e., food-webs, mutualisms), gene flow across landscapes, and the sociality of individuals in populations. The work presented here uses a bibliographic and network approach to (1) document the rise of Network Ecology, (2) identify the diversity of topics addressed in the field, and (3) map the structure of scientific collaboration among contributing scientists. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of this emergent field that highlights its diversity and to provide a foundation for future advances. To do this, we searched the ISI Web of Science database for ecology publications between 1900 and 2012 using the search terms for research areas of Environmental Sciences & Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the topic ecology. From these records we identified the Network Ecology publications using the topic terms network, graph theory, and web, while controlling for the usage of misleading phrases. The resulting corpus entailed 29,513 publications between 1936 and 2012. We found that Network Ecology spans across more than 1500 sources with core ecological journals being among the top 20 most frequent outlets. We document the rapid rise in Network Ecology publications per year reaching a magnitude of over 5% of the ecological publications in 2012. Drawing topical information from the publication record content (titles, abstracts, keywords) and collaboration information from author listing, our analysis highlights the diversity and clustering of topics addressed within Network Ecology. The largest connected component of the topic network contained 73% of the corpus, and exhibited strong clustering (clustering coefficient 0.93). The co-authorship network revealed that while network ecologists are generally collaborative, the field is deeply fragmented into topic and co-author cliques. The largest component of the co-author network comprised 46% of the authors and contained 149 distinct clusters. We suggest ways to build on the collaborative spirit and reduce the field fragmentation so as to improve the development and spread of ideas. We conclude that Network Ecology will likely continue to grow because the forces driving its increase are likely to persist.





Diet-induced obesity attenuates cytokine production following an immune challenge


Publication date: 1 July 2014
Source:Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 267

Author(s): Katherine M. Baumgarner , Sharay Setti , Carolyn Diaz , Alyssa Littlefield , Amanda Jones , Rachel A. Kohman

Obesity increases susceptibility for numerous diseases and neurological disorders including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. One factor that may contribute to the increased risk for these conditions is the development of chronic inflammation. The current study evaluated whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) affects cognitive performance by increasing neuroinflammation and prolonging the behavioral and inflammatory response to an immune challenge. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for 2 or 5 months. After consuming their respective diets for two months, sickness associated behaviors were assessed 4 and 24h after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injection. In a separate experiment, DIO and control mice were tested for spatial learning in the water maze and challenged with LPS one month later. Peripheral cytokine production was assessed in adipose and spleen samples and the neuroinflammatory response was assessed in hippocampal, cortical, and brain samples. DIO impaired acquisition of a spatial learning task relative to control mice. However, these deficits are unlikely to be related to inflammation as DIO showed no changes in basal cytokine levels within the periphery or brain. Further, in response to LPS DIO mice showed comparable or attenuated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 relative to control mice. DIO also reduced hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin. Presently, the data indicate that DIO suppresses aspects of the immune response and that cognitive deficits associated with DIO may be related to reduced neurotrophic support rather than inflammation.





10.8 Morphodynamics of Barrier Systems: A Synthesis


Publication date: 2013
Source:Treatise on Geomorphology, Volume 10

Author(s): R.A. McBride , J.B. Anderson , I.V. Buynevich , W. Cleary , M.S. Fenster , D.M. FitzGerald , M.S. Harris , C.J. Hein , A.H.F. Klein , B. Liu , J.T. de Menezes , M. Pejrup , S.R. Riggs , A.D. Short , G.W. Stone , D.J. Wallace , P. Wang

The morphodynamics of open-ocean barrier systems (barrier islands, barrier spits, and mainland or headland beaches), synthesizing classic studies, current scientific knowledge, and future research directions regarding a number of barrier systems globally are reviewed. Within a coastal tectonic framework, the authors address: (1) Amero-trailing-edge coasts (USA's New England coast, mid-Atlantic Bight coast, North Carolina Outer Banks, Georgia Bight coast, and Florida Atlantic coast; Brazil's Santa Catarina coast; German Bight coast; and southern and western Australian coasts); (2) marginal-sea coasts (USA's Florida Gulf Coast; Gulf Coast of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; Texas Gulf Coast; and eastern Australian coast); and (3) collision coasts (USA's Alaskan Pacific coast and New Zealand). Moreover, the chapter includes a glossary and robust current set of references.





Cleaning mutualist or parasite? Classifying the association between the brittlestar Ophiothrix lineata and the Caribbean reef sponge Callyspongia vaginalis


Publication date: May 2014
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 454

Author(s): Timothy P. Henkel , Joseph R. Pawlik

Symbioses often exist along a mutualism–parasitism continuum, and the classification of any given relationship requires a careful examination of costs and benefits for both symbiont and host. It has been proposed that deposit-feeding by the obligate sponge-dwelling brittlestar Ophiothrix lineata on the surface of the tube sponge Callyspongia vaginalis may increase filtration efficiency resulting in enhanced sponge growth or reproduction while providing protection and food for the brittlestar. However, C. vaginalis produces large (0.5–1.4mm) larvae that are brooded in chambers and released into the interior of sponge tubes year-round, and these larvae could be consumed by O. lineata. In laboratory experiments, brittlestars readily consumed sponge larvae. When larval traps were placed over sponge tubes in the field, fewer larvae per brood chamber were collected from sponge tubes containing brittlestars than sponge tubes that lacked brittlestars, supporting the hypothesis that brittlestars consume sponge larvae under natural conditions. Sponges with brittlestars exhibited no difference in growth or number of brood chambers compared to sponges without brittlestars after 8months, indicating no positive effect of symbiont on host. Spatial and temporal variations in larval release by C. vaginalis likely decrease encounter rates of brittlestars with sponge larvae, reducing the negative impact on the sponge and helping to maintain the association. The available evidence suggests that, depending on the reproductive status of the sponge, the association between O. lineata and C. vaginalis ranges from commensalism to larval parasitism.





Effects of texting on satisfaction in romantic relationships: The role of attachment


Publication date: April 2014
Source:Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 33

Author(s): Shanhong Luo

This study sought to overcome some of the methodological limitations in previous studies and clarify the role of attachment in the associations between texting and romantic relationship satisfaction. Specifically, a new, relative measure of texting usage was created to estimate the share of texting in communication compared to other channels (e.g., face-to-face, phone, and etc.), in addition to using the traditional, absolute measure of texting usage (i.e., the number of texts sent to partners). A sample of 395 participants completed an online survey regarding texting behavior. Background variables were controlled for in all analyses, particularly the physical distance between partners, which was often overlooked in previous research. The results suggested that texting share showed positive links with both attachment dimensions and a negative link with relationship satisfaction, whereas the sheer volume of texts had little association with attachment dimensions or satisfaction.





Cold-water corals in a changing ocean


Publication date: April 2014
Source:Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 7

Author(s): J Murray Roberts , Stephen D Cairns

Although known since Antiquity, corals in deep, cold waters remained largely unappreciated and overlooked by the scientific community until the 1990s. The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in our understanding of these diverse ecosystems alongside growing realisation that many cold-water coral habitats had been degraded by bottom trawling and are threatened by ocean warming and acidification. This paper discusses recent improvements in our understanding of cold-water coral ecology, taxonomy and biodiversity following a variety of advances from the application of predictive mapping to the use of molecular phylogenetic approaches. Since many cold-water coral ecosystems occur in deep-waters beyond national jurisdiction, conservation management measures are being developed through the United Nations and related conventions. All such management measures require not only international agreement but also monitoring and enforcement to ensure their success.





Clinical significance of neuropsychological improvement after supplementation with omega-3 in 8–12 years old malnourished Mexican children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo and treatment clinical trial


Publication date: April 2014
Source:Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 35, Issue 4

Author(s): Verónica Portillo-Reyes , Miguel Pérez-García , Yolanda Loya-Méndez , Antonio E. Puente

It has been shown that supplementation with omega-3 improves cognitive performance, especially in infants and toddlers, but it is unknown whether these results are effective in older malnourished children. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate the omega-3 supplementation effects in 8- to 12-year-old children and to know which neuropsychological functions improve after three months of intervention in a sample of Mexican children with mild to moderate malnutrition. This study was a randomized, double-blind, treatment and placebo study of 59 children aged 8–12 years who were individually allocated to 2 groups. The duration of the intervention lasted 3 months. Neuropsychological performance was measured at baseline and at 3 months. Results show that more than 50% of children in the treatment group had greater improvement in 11 of the 18 neuropsychological variables studied. Processing speed, visual-motor coordination, perceptual integration, attention and executive function showed improvement in more than 70% of the omega-3 supplemented children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01199120.





Facilitating student retention in online graduate nursing education programs: A review of the literature


Publication date: Available online 30 January 2014
Source:Nurse Education Today

Author(s): Elizabeth A. Gazza , Diane F. Hunker

Online education, a form of distance education, provides students with opportunities to engage in lifelong learning without the restrictions of time and space. However, while this approach meets the needs of employed nursing professionals, it poses some challenges for educators. Student retention is one such challenge. Student retention rates serve as measures of program quality and are reported to accrediting bodies. Therefore, it is imperative that administrators and program faculty implement comprehensive programs to ensure student retention. This review of the literature was designed to identify strategies to improve student retention in online graduate nursing education programs. The review includes 23 articles that address models, research, and best practices supported in nursing and higher education. The findings indicate that student retention in online programs is a multidimensional problem requiring a multifaceted approach. Recommendations for facilitating retention in online nursing programs include ensuring social presence and program and course quality, and attentiveness to individual student characteristics.





Distribution and sources of rare earth elements in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, Antarctica


Publication date: May 2014
Source:Microchemical Journal, Volume 114

Author(s): Yaguang Nie , Xiaodong Liu , Steven D. Emslie

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in three ornithogenic sediment profiles excavated at active Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica. The distribution of REEs in each profile fluctuated with depth. REEs measured in environmental media (including bedrock, guano, and algae) and analysis on the correlations of ΣREE–lithological elements and ΣREE–bio-elements in the profiles indicated that sedimentary REEs were mainly from weathered bedrock in this area, and the non-crustal bio-genetic REEs from guano and algae were minor. Further discussion on the slopes and Ce and Eu anomalies of chondrite-normalized REE patterns indicated that a mixing process of weathered bedrock, guano and algae was the main controlling factor for the fluctuations of REEs with depth in the sediments. An end-member equation was developed to calculate the proportion of REEs from the three constituents in the sediments. The calculation functioned well in estimating bedrock-derived REEs and the magnitude of ornithogenic influence in different profiles. In general, REEs in the ornithogenic sediments showed anti bio-element patterns and thus can be used as an additional proxy to reconstruct historical penguin populations.





Improving fisheries knowledge does not diminish prior efforts: A reply to Castrejón and Charles


Publication date: March 2014
Source:Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 89

Author(s): Santiago J. Bucaram , J. Wilson White , James N. Sanchirico , James E. Wilen

The comment by Castrejón and Charles is a useful summary of older, less-well-known gray literature regarding Galapagos fisheries. Their comment adds a helpful historical perspective to our original paper, which presented the first quantitative analysis of historical catch data in those fisheries, but which was not intended as a comprehensive historical review of the subject. Future efforts should combine our results with this historical perspective to achieve better management.