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Effects of MDMA on olfactory memory and reversal learning in rats.


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Effects of MDMA on olfactory memory and reversal learning in rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Oct;114:209-16

Authors: Hawkey A, April LB, Galizio M

Abstract
The effects of acute and sub-chronic MDMA were assessed using a procedure designed to test rodent working memory capacity: the odor span task (OST). Rats were trained to select an odor that they had not previously encountered within the current session, and the number of odors to remember was incremented up to 24 during the course of each session. In order to separate drug effects on the OST from more general performance impairment, a simple olfactory discrimination was also assessed in each session. In Experiment 1, acute doses of MDMA were administered prior to select sessions. MDMA impaired memory span in a dose-dependent fashion, but impairment was seen only at doses (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) that also increased response omissions on both the simple discrimination and the OST. In Experiment 2, a sub-chronic regimen of MDMA (10.0 mg/kg, twice daily over four days) was administered after OST training. There was no evidence of reduced memory span following sub-chronic MDMA, but a temporary increase in omission errors on the OST was observed. In addition, rats exposed to sub-chronic MDMA showed delayed learning when the simple discrimination was reversed. Overall, the disruptive effects of both acute and sub-chronic MDMA appeared to be due to non-mnemonic processes, rather than effects on specific memory functions.

PMID: 25017644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations).


Developmental Psychology; 06/01/2014
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Criminal Justice Abstracts

Applying a Resiliency Model to Community Reintegration and Needs in Families with Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Rehabilitation Counselors.


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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.


RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
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Communication & Mass Media Complete

Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.


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Communication & Mass Media Complete

The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.


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Morphological and genetic analysis of the Coolia monotis species complex with the introduction of two new species, Coolia santacroce sp. nov. and Coolia palmyrensis sp. nov. (Dinophyceae)


Publication date: June 2015
Source:Harmful Algae, Volume 46

Author(s): Sarah Karafas , Robert York , Carmelo Tomas

The dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier is an important epi-benthic organism that is commonly found in association with other dinoflagellates known to cause ciguatera. Two closely related taxa, Coolia monotis and Coolia malayensis, make up the C. monotis species complex. In this study we introduce two new toxic species that should be included in that complex, Coolia palmyrensis Karafas, Tomas, York sp. nov. and Coolia santacroce Karafas, Tomas, York sp. nov., collected from the Palmyra Atoll in the Pacific Ocean and Saint Croix, US Virgin Islands, respectively. These two species can be distinguished morphologically by size, pore shape, pore density, and the relative size of the apical pore complex. The ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 and the D1/D2 regions of the LSU rDNA were used to provide molecular support of morphological observations using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Furthermore, C. palmyrensis and C. santacroce both showed cytotoxic effects on human derived cells in vitro.





Temporal and spatial variability of trace volatile organic compounds in rainwater


Publication date: September 2015
Source:Chemosphere, Volume 134

Author(s): Katherine M. Mullaugh , Joanna M. Hamilton , G. Brooks Avery , J. David Felix , Ralph N. Mead , Joan D. Willey , Robert J. Kieber

This study presents the first detailed concentration profile of trace VOCs in atmospheric waters. Analytes were detected and quantified in 111 unique rain events in Wilmington, NC, USA over a one-year period. Headspace solid phase microextraction was optimized for detection of these compounds at sub-nanomolar levels. Distinct seasonality in both the occurrence and concentration of compounds was observed with the lowest abundance occurring during low irradiance winter months. In contrast to other rainwater components studied at this location, VOCs did not show any correlation between rainfall amount and concentrations. There was significant spatial variation with regards to air-mass back-trajectory for methyfuran with higher concentrations observed in terrestrial events during the growing season. Air mass back trajectory also impacted CCl4 concentrations in rainwater with evidence of a possible oceanic input. However there was no significant impact of air-mass back-trajectory on the concentration of BTEX observed in rain indicating that storm origin is not the controlling factor driving concentrations of these analytes in precipitation. Members of the BTEX family did, however, have significant correlations with each other occurring in ratios aligned closely with ratios reported in the literature for gas-phase BTEX. Using available gas-phase data from locations with similar anthropogenic sources and Henry’s Law constants, calculated concentrations agreed with VOC levels found in Wilmington rain. Results of this study indicate local gas-phase scavenging is the major source of VOCs in rain and wet deposition is not an efficient removal mechanism (<0.1%) of VOCs from the atmosphere.





Chemical analysis of Karenia papilionacea


Publication date: July 2015
Source:Toxicon, Volume 101

Author(s): Nicholas Fowler , Carmelo Tomas , Daniel Baden , Lisa Campbell , Andrea Bourdelais

One of the most widely studied organisms responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) is the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism produces neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. A related dinoflagellate, Karenia papilionacea, has been reported to occasionally co-bloom with K. brevis but has received little attention as a possible toxin producing species. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the toxin profile for K. papilionacea. A toxic fraction was identified using a cell based cytotoxicity assay and the toxin was isolated and identified as the ladder frame polyether brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2) using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Toxin production in K. papilionacea increased in response to hypoosmotic stress, as previously observed in K. brevis.