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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.

RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
(AN 97901734)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

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Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.

American Communication Journal; 06/01/2014
(AN 97065126)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.

Journal of Business & Technical Communication; 04/01/2014
(AN 94842156)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

Related Articles

Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

J Exp Biol. 2014 Dec 15;217(Pt 24):4406-13

Authors: Harden LA, Duernberger KA, Jones TT, Williard AS

Water and salt concentrations in an animal's body fluids can fluctuate with changing environmental conditions, posing osmoregulatory challenges that require behavioral and physiological adjustments. The purpose of this study was to investigate body water dynamics in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a species that undergoes seasonal dormancy in salt marsh habitats. We conducted a field study to determine the total body water (%TBW), water turnover rate (WTR) and daily water flux (DWF) of female terrapins in south eastern North Carolina pre- and post-emergence from winter dormancy. Terrapins were injected with [(2)H]deuterium on two occasions and washout of the isotope was monitored by taking successive blood samples during the period of transition from dormancy to activity. The WTR and DWF of dormant terrapins were significantly lower than those of active terrapins (WTR(dormant)=49.70±15.94 ml day(-1), WTR(active)=100.20±20.36 ml day(-1), DWF(dormant)=10.52±2.92%TBW day(-1), DWF(active)=21.84±7.30%TBW day(-1)). There was no significant difference in %TBW between dormant and active terrapins (75.05±6.19% and 74.54±4.36%, respectively). The results from this field study provide insight into the terrapin's ability to maintain osmotic homeostasis while experiencing shifts in behavioral and environmental conditions.

PMID: 25394625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations).

Developmental Psychology; 06/01/2014
(AN 96249186)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Applying a Resiliency Model to Community Reintegration and Needs in Families with Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Rehabilitation Counselors.

Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling; 03/01/2014
(AN 95045799)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Introduction to the Special Issue on Queer/ing Criminology: New Directions and Frameworks.

Critical Criminology; 03/01/2014
(AN 94317402)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Success or sorrow: the paradoxical view of crime control campaigns in China.

International Journal of Comparative & Applied Criminal Justice; 01/01/2014
(AN 93018776)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Use of Craniofacial Superimposition in Historic Investigation.

Journal of Forensic Sciences (Wiley-Blackwell); 01/01/2014
(AN 93569166)
Criminal Justice Abstracts

Age and wheel running modulate the response to intra-hippocampal IL-4/IL-13 administration

Publication date: October 2015
Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 49, Supplement

Author(s): A. Littlefield, R.A. Kohman

Normal aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that results from age-related priming of microglial cells. Further, aging alters the response to several anti-inflammatory factors, including interleukin-4 (IL-4). One intervention that has been shown to modulate microglia activation in the aged brain, both basally and following an immune challenge, is exercise. However, whether engaging in exercise can improve responsiveness to anti-inflammatory cytokines is presently unknown. The current study evaluated whether prior exercise training increases sensitivity to anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote the M2 (alternative) microglia phenotype in adult (5-month-old) and aged (23-month-old) C57BL6/J mice. After 8 weeks of exercise or control housing, mice received bilateral hippocampal injections of an IL-4/IL-13 cocktail or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later hippocampal samples were collected and analyzed for expression of genes associated with the M1 and M2 microglia phenotypes. Preliminary results show that IL-4/IL-13 increased expression of the M2 associated genes arginase, Fizz-1, YM1, and CD206. With the exception of CD206, age and/or exercise modulated expression of all M2 associated genes following IL-4/IL-13 administration. Further, aged mice showed increased expression of interleukin-1 β relative to adults, which was unaffected by IL-4/IL-13 or wheel running. Analysis of additional M1 and M2 associated genes is currently in progress. Collectively, preliminary findings indicate that aged mice show a differential response to anti-inflammatory cytokines relative to adult mice and that exercise can modulate aspects of this response.

Climate-induced change of environmentally defined floristic domains: A conservation based vulnerability framework

Publication date: September 2015
Source:Applied Geography, Volume 63

Author(s): Debbie Jewitt, Barend F.N. Erasmus, Peter S. Goodman, Timothy G. O'Connor, William W. Hargrove, Damian M. Maddalena, Ed. T.F. Witkowski

Global climate change is having marked influences on species distributions, phenology and ecosystem composition and raises questions as to the effectiveness of current conservation strategies. Conservation planning has only recently begun to adequately account for dynamic threats such as climate change. We propose a method to incorporate climate-dynamic environmental domains, identified using specific environmental correlates of floristic composition, into conservation strategies, using the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a case study. The environmental domains offer an approach to conservation that conserves diversity under current and future climates, recognising that the species constituting diversity may change through time. We mapped current locations of domains by identifying their positions in a multi-dimensional environmental space using a non-hierarchical iterative k-means clustering algorithm. Their future locations were explored using an ensemble of future climate scenarios. The HadCM2 and GFDL2.1 models represented the extreme ranges of the models. The magnitude of change in each environmental domain was calculated using Euclidean distances to determine areas of greatest and least stability for each future climate projection. Domains occurring in the savanna biome increase at the expense of domains occurring in the grassland biome, which has significant negative consequences for the species rich grasslands. The magnitude of change maps represents areas of changed climatic conditions or edaphic disjunctions. The HadCM2 model predicted the greatest overall magnitude of change across the province. Species with specific soil requirements may not be able to track changing climatic conditions. A vulnerability framework was developed that incorporated climatic stability and habitat intactness indices. The mean magnitude of change informed the potential speed of transition of domains between the vulnerability quadrants. The framework informs appropriate conservation actions to mitigate climate change impacts on biodiversity. The study explicitly links floristic pattern and climate variability and provides useful insights to facilitate conservation planning for climate change.
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Genetic and biogeochemical investigation of sedimentary nitrogen cycling communities responding to tidal and seasonal dynamics in Cape Fear River Estuary

Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
Source:Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

Author(s): Jessica A. Lisa, Bongkeun Song, Craig R. Tobias, David E. Hines

Tidal and seasonal fluctuations in the oligohaline reaches of estuaries may alter geochemical features that influence structure and function of microbial communities involved in sedimentary nitrogen (N) cycling. In order to evaluate sediment community responses to short-term (tidal) and long-term (seasonal) changes in different tidal regimes, nitrogen cycling rates and genes were quantified in three sites that span a range of tidal influence in the upper portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary. Environmental parameters were monitored during low and high tides in winter and spring. 15N tracer incubation experiments were conducted to measure nitrification, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA). Abundances of functional genes including bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenases (amoA), nitrite reductases (nirS and nrfA), nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) were measured using quantitative PCR assays. Denitrification rates were highest among the measured N cycling processes while bacteria carrying nrfA genes were most abundant. A discernable pattern in the short-term variation of N cycling rates and gene abundance was not apparent under the different tidal regimes. Significant seasonal variation in nitrification, denitrification, and anammox rates as well as bacterial amoA, nirS and nosZ gene abundance was observed, largely explained by increases in substrate availability during winter, with sediment ammonium playing a central role. These results suggest that the coupling of nitrification to N removal pathways is primarily driven by organic carbon mineralization and independent of tidal or salinity changes. Finally, changes in denitrification and nitrification activities were strongly reflected by the abundance of the respective functional genes, supporting a linkage between the structure and function of microbial communities.
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Synthesis of 7-norbornenols via Diels–Alder cycloadditions of cyclopentadienol generated by decomposition of ferrocenium cation

Publication date: Available online 16 September 2015
Source:Tetrahedron Letters

Author(s): Stacey K. Allen, Thomas E. Lathrop, Sweta B. Patel, Deanna M. Harrell Moody, Roger D. Sommer, Thomas C. Coombs

Ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, Cp2FePF6, was determined to be a convenient source of cyclopentadienol when stirred open to air in a mixture of acetonitrile and water. The cyclopentadienol was intercepted via Diels–Alder reaction with a variety of dienophiles to afford cycloadducts having 7-norbornenol cores. Reactions were stereoselective, producing single diastereomers from endo approach of the dienophile syn to the OH substituent of the cyclopentadienol.
Graphical abstract