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Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

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Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults.

J Appl Behav Anal. 2014;47(2):231-45

Authors: Washington WD, Banna KM, Gibson AL

An estimated 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity. Effective, low-cost interventions to increase physical activity are needed to prevent and treat obesity. In this study, 11 healthy adults wore Fitbit accelerometers for 3 weeks. During the initial baseline, subjects earned prize draws for wearing the Fitbit. During intervention, percentile schedules were used to calculate individual prize-draw criteria. The final week was a return to baseline. Four subjects increased step counts as a result of the intervention. A bout analysis of interresponse times revealed that subjects increased overall step counts by increasing daily minutes active and within-bout response rates and decreasing pauses between bouts of activity. Strategies to improve effectiveness are suggested, such as modification of reinforcement probability and amount and identification of the function of periods of inactivity.

PMID: 24740477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.

RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
(AN 97901734)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.

American Communication Journal; 06/01/2014
(AN 97065126)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.

Journal of Business & Technical Communication; 04/01/2014
(AN 94842156)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

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Isotopic composition of nitrate in sequential Hurricane Irene precipitation samples: Implications for changing NOx sources

Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015
Source:Atmospheric Environment

Author(s): J. David Felix , Emily M. Elliott , G. Brooks Avery , Robert J. Kieber , Ralph N. Mead , Joan D. Willey , Katherine M. Mullaugh

Previous studies have concentrated on adverse ecosystem effects resulting from nitrogen (N) loading from runoff and increased N2O emissions due to hurricane activity but little focus has been placed on N inputs delivered by hurricane precipitation. Understanding these N inputs during extreme rain events is increasingly important since global climate change may alter hurricane activity. In this study, ten sequential Hurricane Irene rain samples were analyzed for isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3 -) to investigate NOx (= NO + NO2) sources contributing to NO3 - deposited by a hurricane. The samples were divided into three groups (I, II, II) by k-means clustering using rain event back trajectories, δ15N-NO3 - values, and NO3 - concentrations. Chemical, physical and isotopic analyses, including δ15N- and δ18O-NO3 -, anions, cations, H+, H2O2, DOC, acetaldehyde, ethanol and rainfall intensity, were then used to explore similarities in geographic origins and potential relationships with NOx and other emission sources. While it is possible that all samples had contributions from various NOx sources, group I samples had marine back trajectories and a mean δ15N-NO3 - value (-0.7 + 1.9‰) suggesting primarily lightning-sourced NOx contributions to NO3 - deposition. As the hurricane made landfall, Group II samples transitioned to reflect more of a terrestrial signature with a higher mean δ15N-NO3 - value (+11.0 + 0.5‰) indicating NOx emission contributions from vehicles and power plants sources. As the hurricane continued to move inland, Group III δ15N-NO3 - values (-5.5 and -5.7‰) reflect the potential mixing of biogenic soil NOx emissions with vehicle and power plant sources. Higher concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, NH4 +, and carbohydrates in Group III samples support the influence of biogenic sources. The isotopic composition of NO3 - in hurricane rain can aid in discerning varying NOx sources contributing to nitrate concentrations in extreme rain events. This knowledge can in turn further our understanding of how forthcoming hurricane events may alter the N cycle of an ecosystem.

Recreational diver preferences for reef fish attributes: Economic implications of future change

Publication date: March 2015
Source:Ecological Economics, Volume 111

Author(s): David A. Gill , Peter W. Schuhmann , Hazel A. Oxenford

This study sought to quantify the potential effects of changes in Caribbean reef fish populations on recreational divers' consumer surplus. Over five hundred tourist SCUBA divers were interviewed at seven sites across three Caribbean countries representing a diversity of individuals within the Caribbean dive market. A choice experiment was used to assess willingness to pay as a function of the abundance and size of reef fishes, the presence of fishing activity/gear, and dive price. Despite some preference heterogeneity both between and within sites, the results indicate that future declines in the abundance of reef fishes, and particularly in the number of large fishes observed on recreational dives, will result in significant reductions in diver consumer surplus. On the other hand, improvements in fish populations and reduced fishing gear encounters are likely to result in significant economic gains. These results can be used to justify investment in pre-emptive management strategies targeted at improving reef fish stocks (namely reducing unsustainable fishing activities and land-based reef impacts), managing conflicting uses, as well as to indicate a possible source of financing for such conservation activities.

Deletion of Shank1 has minimal effects on the molecular composition and function of glutamatergic afferent postsynapses in the mouse inner ear

Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015
Source:Hearing Research

Author(s): Jeremy P. Braude , Sarath Vijayakumar , Katherine Baumgarner , Rebecca Laurine , Timothy A. Jones , Sherri M. Jones , Sonja J. Pyott

Shank proteins (1-3) are considered the master organizers of glutamatergic postsynaptic densities in the central nervous system, and the genetic deletion of either Shank1, 2, or 3 results in altered composition, form, and strength of glutamatergic postsynapses. To investigate the contribution of Shank proteins to glutamatergic afferent synapses of the inner ear and especially cochlea, we used immunofluorescence and quantitative real time PCR to determine the expression of Shank1, 2, and 3 in the cochlea. Because we found evidence for expression of Shank1 but not 2 and 3, we investigated the morphology, composition, and function of afferent postsynaptic densities from defined tonotopic regions in the cochlea of Shank1-/- mice. Using immunofluorescence, we identified subtle changes in the morphology and composition (but not number and localization) of cochlear afferent postsynaptic densities at the lower frequency region (8 kHz) in Shank1-/- mice compared to Shank1+/+ littermates. However, we detected no differences in auditory brainstem responses at matching or higher frequencies. We also identified Shank1 in the vestibular afferent postsynaptic densities, but detected no differences in vestibular sensory evoked potentials in Shank1-/- mice compared to Shank1+/+ littermates. This work suggests that Shank proteins play a different role in the development and maintenance of glutamatergic afferent synapses in the inner ear compared to the central nervous system.

Phospholipid Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVS) Melt Like Large (LUVS), Not Mulitilamellar (MLVS), Vesicles

Publication date: 27 January 2015
Source:Biophysical Journal, Volume 108, Issue 2, Supplement 1

Author(s): Mark A. Kreutzberger , Paulo F. Almeida

Binding of Daptomycin to Lipid Bilayers is not Significantly Altered by the Inclusion of Lysyl-Phosphatidylglycerol

Publication date: 27 January 2015
Source:Biophysical Journal, Volume 108, Issue 2, Supplement 1

Author(s): Tala Khatib , Hannah Lineberry , Heather Stevenson , Bayer S. Arnold , Michael R. Yeaman , Antje Pokorny

Environmental predictors and temporal patterns of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) occurrence in the lower Bay of Fundy, Canada

Publication date: April 2015
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 465

Author(s): J. Lisa Hoogenboom , Sarah N.P. Wong , Robert A. Ronconi , Heather N. Koopman , Laurie D. Murison , Andrew J. Westgate

Little is currently known about the population dynamics of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) at regional or local scales. Using a long-term sighting database (1994–2012) and photo-identification of individuals, we studied the seasonal and inter-annual patterns in basking shark occurrence and site fidelity in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Zero-inflated negative binomial models quantified spatial, temporal and environmental predictors of shark sighting rates. The probability of sighting a basking shark increased in August, and in deep water offshore; this may reflect the distribution and availability of calanoid copepod prey. Sea-surface temperature (SST) had no effects on shark sightings, but there was a negative correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and shark sightings lagged at two and four years; the former possibly due to the position of the Gulf Stream and the latter likely a result of the lagged influence of the NAO on copepod abundance. The model also showed a significant decline in the occurrence of basking sharks within the Bay of Fundy over the study period. From unique markings on dorsal fins, 98 individual sharks were identified from photographs taken between 1997 and 2012. Four of these individuals were re-sighted in subsequent years, and the longest interval between re-sightings was 9.1years. These re-sightings suggest some site fidelity by individuals and demonstrate the longevity of some mark-types on the first dorsal fin. This study highlights the role of long-term sightings and photographic records as population assessment tools for regional scale-monitoring of a globally vulnerable species.

Characterization of CHOS compounds in rainwater from continental and coastal storms by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

Publication date: March 2015
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 105

Author(s): Ralph N. Mead , J. David Felix , G. Brooks Avery , Robert J. Kieber , Joan D. Willey , David C. Podgorski

Rainwater from four continental and three coastal storms was collected and analyzed by (−) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). This study presents a comprehensive comparison of the CHOS molecular formulas of rainwater dissolved organic matter from these two different storm trajectories. There were 899 and 695 total molecular formula assignments in the continental and coastal storms respectively. Of these, 33% and 15% were unique to continental and coastal storms. Kendrick mass analysis of methylene units highlighted oligomers present in both storm types illustrating their ubiquitous occurrence in atmospheric waters. There was also evidence of organo-sulfate containing molecular formulas as well as highly condensed aromatic structures containing one sulfur and one oxygen. These condensed aromatic sulfur containing structures likely originate from fossil fuel sources and were only detected in continental derived rainwater.

Perspectives of linkage to care among people diagnosed with HIV

Publication date: Available online 8 December 2014
Source:Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care

Author(s): Christa L. Cook , Barbara J. Lutz , Mary-Ellen Young , Allyson Hall , Jeanne-Marie Stacciarini

Timely linkage to HIV care and treatment has led to improved individual and population benefits; however, 25%-31% of people diagnosed with HIV do not engage in care. Most linkage to care research has focused on larger metropolitan areas, but smaller metropolitan and rural areas encounter unique challenges to linkage to care. Our purpose was to examine factors influencing the decision to seek care by 27 people infected with HIV living in smaller metropolitan and rural areas of Florida. We used grounded theory methods to develop a theoretical model describing the decision-making process and participant recommendations within the context of stigma. Participants described support, defining care, activating care, conflicting messages of care, and pivotal events influencing the care decision. Findings highlight the complexities of HIV care and suggest a client-centered approach to address the multifaceted social and structural challenges people with HIV face in the journey from infection to care.

Perceptions of availability of beach parking and access as predictors of coastal tourism

Publication date: March 2015
Source:Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 105

Author(s): Anthony Snider , Shanhong Luo , Jeffery Hill , James Herstine

This study examined the relationship between perceptions of parking and visitation patterns to beaches in North Carolina. Data were collected from both a systematic face-to-face interview (n = 1384) in a semi-structured format at several coastal locations in the state and a random telephone survey (n = 1877) of North Carolina residents living in coastal counties 120 or fewer miles from the ocean. Results showed that beach visitors' perceptions of parking conditions did not correspond to the actual record of parking availability. Moreover, parking perceptions did not strongly correlate with visitation patterns. Management implications are discussed.

Effects of captions and time-compressed video on learner performance and satisfaction

Publication date: April 2015
Source:Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 45

Author(s): Albert D. Ritzhaupt , Raymond Pastore , Robert Davis

Digital video is becoming increasingly popular in higher education with faculty digitally recording and broadcasting lectures for students to learn-on-demand, such as iTunes University or YouTube. Students have discovered accelerated playback features in popular computer software and use it to reduce the amount of time watching video-enhanced instruction. In the current study, 147 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of six video treatments based on a 3 Video Speed (1.0=Normal vs. 1.25=Fast vs. 1.50=Very Fast)×2 Captions (Captions Present vs. Captions Absent)×2 Trial (Trial 1 vs. Trial 2) design. Results show no significant difference on learner performance across treatments based on Video Speed. Captions were found to have a significant negative effect on learner performance. A significant difference was found on learner satisfaction in favor of a normal Video Speed. The findings suggest that learners might be able to accelerate Video Speeds up to 1.5 times the normal speed, but are generally less satisfied with the learning experience.

Sedimentary proxy evidence of a mid-Holocene hypsithermal event in the location of a current warming hole, North Carolina, USA

Publication date: Available online 27 December 2014
Source:Quaternary Research

Author(s): Benjamin R. Tanner , Chad S. Lane , Elizabeth M. Martin , Robert Young , Beverly Collins

A wetland deposit from the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA, has been radiocarbon dated and shows continuous deposition from the early Holocene to the present. Non-coastal records of Holocene paleoenvironments are rare from the southeastern USA. Increased stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of sedimentary organic matter and pollen percentages indicate warm, dry early- to mid-Holocene conditions. This interpretation is also supported by n-alkane biomarker data and bulk sedimentary C/N ratios. These warm, dry conditions coincide with a mid-Holocene hypsithermal, or altithermal, documented elsewhere in North America. Our data indicate that the southeastern USA warmed concurrently with much of the rest of the continent during the mid-Holocene. If the current “warming hole” in the southeastern USA persists, during a time of greenhouse gas-induced warming elsewhere, it will be anomalous both in space and time.

Diet-induced obesity attenuates endotoxin-induced cognitive deficits

Publication date: 15 March 2015
Source:Physiology & Behavior, Volume 141

Author(s): Sharay E. Setti , Alyssa M. Littlefield , Samantha W. Johnson , Rachel A. Kohman

Activation of the immune system can impair cognitive function, particularly on hippocampus dependent tasks. Several factors such as normal aging and prenatal experiences can modify the severity of these cognitive deficits. One additional factor that may modulate the behavioral response to immune activation is obesity. Prior work has shown that obesity alters the activity of the immune system. Whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) influences the cognitive deficits associated with inflammation is currently unknown. The present study explored whether DIO alters the behavioral response to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat (60% fat) or control diet (10% fat) for a total of five months. After consuming their respective diets for four months, mice received an LPS or saline injection and were assessed for alterations in spatial learning. One month later, mice received a second injection of LPS or saline and tissue samples were collected to assess the inflammatory response within the periphery and central nervous system. Results showed that LPS administration impaired spatial learning in the control diet mice, but had no effect in DIO mice. This lack of a cognitive deficit in the DIO female mice is likely due to a blunted inflammatory response within the brain. While cytokine production within the periphery (i.e., plasma, adipose, and spleen) was similar between the DIO and control mice, the DIO mice failed to show an increase in IL-6 and CD74 in the brain following LPS administration. Collectively, these data indicate that DIO can reduce aspects of the neuroinflammatory response as well as blunt the behavioral reaction to an immune challenge.

Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex

Publication date: Available online 20 December 2014
Source:Journal of Molecular Biology

Author(s): Ria Sircar , Peter P. Borbat , Michael J. Lynch , Jaya Bhatnagar , Matthew S. Beyersdorf , Christopher J. Halkides , Jack H. Freed , Brian R. Crane

At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions.
Graphical abstract

Are equities good inflation hedges? A frequency domain perspective

Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
Source:Review of Financial Economics

Author(s): Cetin Ciner

By using industry level data, we examine the relation between equity returns and inflation in a frequency dependent framework. Our analysis shows that a positive relation in fact exists between equity returns and high frequency inflation shocks for commodity and technology related industries. Since higher frequency shocks are independent from trend and are transitory in nature, our findings imply a positive relation between stock returns and the unexpected component of inflation. Furthermore, we show that the results are robust to firm-level data by using a sample from the oil industry. Hence, our study provides a new look at the impact of inflation on equities by showing the sensitivity of conclusions in prior work to frequency dependence in data.