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Advantages and problems with pregnancy registries: observations and surprises throughout the life of the International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry.


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Advantages and problems with pregnancy registries: observations and surprises throughout the life of the International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Aug;23(8):779-86

Authors: Sinclair S, Cunnington M, Messenheimer J, Weil J, Cragan J, Lowensohn R, Yerby M, Tennis P

Abstract
PURPOSE: The International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry monitored for a signal of a substantial increase in the frequency of major congenital malformations associated with lamotrigine exposures in pregnancy over an 18-year period. Key methodological lessons are discussed.
METHODS: The strengths and weaknesses of the Registry were assessed using quantifiable methodological and operational parameters including enrollment, completeness of exposure and outcome data reporting, and lost to follow-up. The choice of comparator groups and stopping rules for registry closure were critically evaluated.
RESULTS: The reliance on voluntary reporting was associated with a clustered geographical distribution of registered pregnancies. The enrollment rate increased over time with new approvals and indications for lamotrigine and publication of interim data. Reporter burden was minimized through a streamlined data collection approach resulting in a high level of completeness of exposure and primary outcome data. Lost to follow-up rates were high (28.5% overall) representing a major limitation; incentives to increase the completeness of reporting failed to reduce rates. A lack of an internal comparator group complicated data interpretation; but external comparisons with multiple external groups allowed an assessment of consistency of outcome data across multiple data sources. A lack of a priori closure criteria prolonged the life of the Registry, and consideration of regulatory guidelines on this subject is encouraged at the time of conception of future registries.
CONCLUSIONS: A successful pregnancy exposure registry requires ongoing flexibility and continuous re-assessment of enrollment, recruitment, and retention methods and the availability of comparison data, throughout its lifecycle.

PMID: 24974947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Women Physicians and Professional Ethos in Nineteenth-Century America , by Carolyn Skinner.


RSQ: Rhetoric Society Quarterly; 08/01/2014
(AN 97901734)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

Renovating Rhetoric in Christian Tradition, 2014.


American Communication Journal; 06/01/2014
(AN 97065126)
Communication & Mass Media Complete

The Impact of Presentation Form, Entrepreneurial Passion, and Perceived Preparedness on Obtaining Grant Funding.


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Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia


Publication date: 15 December 2014
Source:Psychiatry Research, Volume 220, Issues 1–2

Author(s): Nicholas S. Thaler , Griffin P. Sutton , Daniel N. Allen

Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis.





The Journal of Inteprofessional Education & Practice: The future of healthcare today


Publication date: March 2015
Source:Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice, Volume 1, Issue 1

Author(s): Antonio E. Puente







Are equities good inflation hedges? A frequency domain perspective


Publication date: January 2015
Source:Review of Financial Economics, Volume 24

Author(s): Cetin Ciner

By using industry level data, we examine the relation between equity returns and inflation in a frequency dependent framework. Our analysis shows that a positive relation in fact exists between equity returns and high frequency inflation shocks for commodity and technology related industries. Since higher frequency shocks are independent from trend and are transitory in nature, our findings imply a positive relation between stock returns and the unexpected component of inflation. Furthermore, we show that the results are robust to firm-level data by using a sample from the oil industry. Hence, our study provides a new look at the impact of inflation on equities by showing the sensitivity of conclusions in prior work to frequency dependence in data.





Psychosocial predictors of drive for muscularity in male collegiate athletes


Publication date: June 2015
Source:Body Image, Volume 14

Author(s): Nick Galli , Trent Petrie , Justine J. Reel , Christy Greenleaf , Jennifer E. Carter

The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous relation of general and sport-specific pressures about body weight and shape, negative affect, and body satisfaction to drive for muscularity (DM) in male collegiate athletes. Participants were 183 male athletes who were drawn from three NCAA Division I institutions and represented 17 different sports. As hypothesized, after controlling for BMI and sport type, sport-specific pressures, negative affect, and body satisfaction were significant predictors, and accounted for 15–34% of the variance in muscularity-oriented body image and muscularity behaviors; general pressures however were not significantly related. These findings offer insight into the personal and social antecedents of DM in male athletes, and serve as a starting point for future research on DM in this population.





Women's drinking decisions in sexually risky situations: Effects of a low level of intoxication


Publication date: August 2015
Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 47

Author(s): Nora E. Noel , Karen A. Daniels , Richard L. Ogle , Stephen A. Maisto , Jackson Lee A. Jr. , Sarah J. Ehlke , Mallorie G. Carroll

Introduction Alcohol administration studies assessing alcohol's deleterious effects on women's threat perception and response in potential sexual assault situations usually employ a moderate to high dose (.07% BAC or more) and measure alcohol's effects specifically on women's sexual decisions. The current study used a low dose (.03%, equivalent to about 1–2 drinks) to assess women's projected decisions on a different risky behavior: decisions to continue drinking and to drink higher amounts in a series of ecologically-valid sexual risk situations. Methods Young adult women (n =17; M age=21.8, SD=1.3, range 21–25) participated in a three-session double-blind within subjects 2 (type of scenario)×3( beverage) experiment, responding each time to 6 vignettes with an attractive man who was either Familiar or had Just Met her. In each session participants consumed a beverage (alcohol, placebo or water, random order) and projected emotional reactions and drinking decisions (likelihood and amount) in each of the 6 scenarios. Results Regardless of beverage, women predicted greater happiness, drinking likelihood, and drinking amount with “Familiar” men. However, there was also an interaction: they projected increased subsequent amounts in the .03% BAC (vs. water and placebo) condition differentially in the “Familiar” scenarios. Conclusion When the woman is Familiar with the man in a risky sexual situation, just one drink may increase subsequent projected alcohol amount over that originally intended. Implications include a low dose as a possible prime for more drinking, increasing sexual assault risk.





Mid-Pliocene shorelines of the US Atlantic Coastal Plain — An improved elevation database with comparison to Earth model predictions


Publication date: June 2015
Source:Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 145

Author(s): A. Rovere , P.J. Hearty , J. Austermann , J.X. Mitrovica , J. Gale , R. Moucha , A.M. Forte , M.E. Raymo

For nearly a century, the Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) of the United States has been the focus of studies investigating Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines, however, the mapping of paleoshorelines was primarily done by using elevation contours on topographic maps. Here we review published geologic maps and compare them to paleoshoreline locations obtained through geomorphometric classification and satellite data. We furthermore present the results of an extensive field campaign that measured the mid-Pliocene (~3.3–2.9Ma) shorelines of the Atlantic Coastal Plain using high-accuracy GPS and digital elevation models. We compare our new dataset to positions and elevations extracted from published maps and find that the extracted site information from earlier studies is prone to significant error, both in the location and, more severely, in the elevation of the paleoshoreline. We also investigate, using geophysical modeling, the origin of post-depositional displacement of the shoreline from Georgia to Virginia. In particular, we correct the elevation of our shoreline for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and then compare the corrected elevation to predictions of mantle flow-induced dynamic topography (DT). While a subset of these models does reconcile the general trends in the observed elevation of the mid-Pliocene shoreline, local discrepancies persist. These discrepancies suggests that either (i) the DT and GIA models presented here do not capture the full range of uncertainty in the input parameters; and/or (ii) other influences, such as sediment loading and unloading or local fault-driven tectonics, may have contributed to post-depositional deformation of the mid-Pliocene shoreline that are not captured in the above models. In this context, our field measurements represent an important observational dataset with which to compare future generations of geodynamic models. Improvements in models for DT, GIA and other relevant processes, together with an expanded, geographically distributed set of shoreline records, will ultimately be the key to obtaining more accurate estimates of eustatic sea level not only in the mid-Pliocene but also earlier in the Cenozoic.





δ13C and δ15N in deep-living fishes and shrimps after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico


Publication date: Available online 14 March 2015
Source:Marine Pollution Bulletin

Author(s): Ester Quintana-Rizzo , Joseph J. Torres , Steve W. Ross , Isabel Romero , Kathleen Watson , Ethan Goddard , David Hollander

The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drill-rig produced a surface oil layer, dispersed micro-droplets throughout the water column, and sub-surface plumes. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in mesopelagic fishes and shrimps in the vicinity of DWH collected prior to, six weeks after, and one year after the oil spill (2007, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, the year of the oil spill, a small but significant depletion of δ13C was found in two mesopelagic fishes (Gonostoma elongatum and Chauliodus sloani) and one shrimp (Systellaspis debilis); a significant δ15N enrichment was identified in the same shrimp and in three fish species (G. elongatum, Ceratoscopelus warmingii, and Lepidophanes guentheri). The δ15N change did not suggest a change of trophic level, but did indicate a change in diet. The data suggest that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was incorporated into the mesopelagic food web of the Gulf of Mexico.





A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography


Publication date: 15 April 2015
Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 114

Author(s): Sérgio P. Ávila , Carlos Melo , Luís Silva , Ricardo S. Ramalho , Rui Quartau , Ana Hipólito , Ricardo Cordeiro , Ana Cristina Rebelo , Patrícia Madeira , Alessio Rovere , Paul J. Hearty , Diamantino Henriques , Carlos Marques da Silva , António M. de Frias Martins , Caridad Zazo

The privileged location of Santa Maria Island (Azores archipelago) in the middle of the North Atlantic makes the fossiliferous outcrops on this island of utmost importance to gain a better understanding of how coeval living communities relate to the broader evolutionary and biogeographic history of the Atlantic basin during the late Neogene and the Quaternary. Here we focus on this island's MIS 5e fossil record, offering a comprehensive review on the palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the biota living in the mid North Atlantic during this interglacial. Several studies in oceanic islands stress the huge impact of sea level changes on insular communities. Pleistocene sea-level changes occur during the short-time events known as “Terminations” (associated to glacial/interglacial shifts) as well as with the onset of glaciations (associated to interglacial/glacial shifts). Both are responsible for extinctions and local disappearance of species, bottleneck effects and formation of new species, resulting in community structure changes. This work increases the number of fossil marine taxa reported from the Last Interglacial deposits of Santa Maria to 143 species. All the 19 new records are molluscs (13 gastropods and 6 bivalves), thus increasing the number of fossil molluscs to 136 species. Although thermophilic members of the “Senegalese” tropical fauna were found in these deposits, many of the most emblematic species (e.g., Persististrombus latus (=Strombus bubonius), Cymbula safiana, Harpa doris, Cardita senegalensis, Barbatia plicata, Ctena eburnea or Hyotissa hyotis) are absent, suggesting that they did not reach the Azores. Our results indicate that the main differences between the species composition of the MIS 5e and the present-day shallow-water Azorean communities are probably due to the dropping of sea surface temperature associated with the onset of the last glaciation, which had both direct and indirect effects on species ecology. A group of 21 thermophilic species was directly affected by the lower sea surface temperature, whereas a group of four sand-associated species was indirectly but similarly affected by the lowering of the sea level. Both groups have locally disappeared from the Azores. However, none of the extant endemic species found on the studied MIS 5e outcrops was apparently affected by the lowering SST. In contrast to the biogeographical relationships of the recent Azorean shallow marine molluscs, which are predominantly with the Mediterranean Region, Portugal and with the Madeira and Canary Islands archipelagos, the palaeobiogeographical relationships of the MIS 5e Azorean marine molluscs are mainly with Canaries and West Africa. Despite the general low similarity of the biogeographical relationships between the Azores and Cape Verde Archipelago, on both the recent and the MIS 5e analysis, this similarity is nevertheless higher for the MIS 5e mollusc assemblages, emphasizing the role of Cape Verde as an important source of warm-water species during the Last Interglacial.





Corrigendum to “Effects of MDMA on olfactory memory and reversal learning in rats” [Neurobiol. Learning Memory 114 (2014) 209–216]


Publication date: April 2015
Source:Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Volume 120

Author(s): Andrew Hawkey , L. Brooke April , Mark Galizio







Spectroscopic, structural, and thermodynamic aspects of the stereochemically active lone pair on lead(II): Structure of the lead(II) dota complex


Publication date: 8 May 2015
Source:Polyhedron, Volume 91

Author(s): Joseph W. Nugent , Hee-Seung Lee , Joseph H. Reibenspies , Robert D. Hancock

Steric, thermodynamic, and spectroscopic consequences of a stereochemically active lone pair (Lp) in Pb(II) complexes are discussed. The structure of Na3[Pb(dota)]NO3·2H2O (dota=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate) is reported: the four Pb–N bonds average 2.665Å, while the four Pb–O bonds to the acetate groups average 2.772Å. Normally, M–N bond lengths are longer than M–O bond lengths, as reported for the Sr(II) dota complex. This reversal in bond length order is attributed to the Pb–O bonds being closer to a stereochemically active Lp on Pb(II). In line with the latter, a very long Pb⋯O contact of 3.022Å is found to a water molecule coordinated over the proposed site of the Lp on Pb in its dota complex. Steric control of whether the Lp is stereochemically active, that produces long Pb–N bonds close to 2.8Å in length, can be exerted by ligands such as cryptands that prevent the N donors of the ligand from coordinating close together near the site on the Pb(II) opposite the Lp, the ‘antipodal’ site. The intense band that occurs in the electronic spectrum of Pb(II) complexes in the range 210–270nm, that is attributed to a 6s2 →6sp transition, is examined. The band shifts from 209nm in the Pb2+(aq) ion in aqueous solution to about 260nm as the number of N donors increases in a series of ligands containing only N and O donors. Within this shift it is found that in Pb(II) complexes with the same number of N donors, there is a shift to shorter wavelength, that appears to correlate with a change in the Lp from stereochemically inactive to stereochemically active. DFT calculations support the idea that the observed band in Pb(II) complexes is due to a transition from the filled 6s orbital to an empty 6p orbital, and suggest that the 6s orbital increasingly becomes hybridized with the 6p orbital as the Lp becomes more stereochemically active. The DFT calculations also support the interpretation that for complexes with the same number of N donors, the 6s2 →6sp transition shifts to shorter wavelength as the Lp becomes stereochemically active.
Graphical abstract




Corrigendum to “The critical number of finite abelian groups” [J. Number Theory 129 (11) (2009) 2766–2777]


Publication date: July 2015
Source:Journal of Number Theory, Volume 152

Author(s): Michael Freeze , Weidong Gao , Alfred Geroldinger

One of the theorems of the original paper was not correctly stated for cyclic groups whose order is the square of an odd prime. The theorem statement is corrected to guarantee that cr ( C p 2 ) = 2 p − 1 for odd primes p and the statement of the proof of the theorem is reformulated accordingly.





The blood biochemistry of overwintering diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin)


Publication date: May 2015
Source:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 466

Author(s): Leigh Anne Harden , Stephen R. Midway , Amanda Southwood Williard

Estuarine ectothermic vertebrates, such as diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin, Schwartz 1955), inhabit a dynamic environment, and many aspects of their biology reflect their ability to withstand and respond to these environmental challenges. The physiological adjustments necessary to maintain water and salt balance and the metabolic adjustments that accompany seasonal changes in activity and behavior have not been well-characterized for overwintering terrapins under field conditions. To investigate terrapin osmotic and metabolic physiology during winter when activity levels are depressed, we obtained repeat blood samples from 10 radio-tagged female terrapins maintained in a semi-natural, open-air salt marsh enclosure in southeastern North Carolina, USA. From November 2011 to April 2012, we measured monthly plasma osmolality, plasma concentrations of inorganic osmolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−), and protein catabolic indices (urea and uric acid), as well as monthly plasma concentrations of total Ca2+, lactate, and glucose as metabolic indices. We used linear mixed models to determine the best predictors of blood chemistry, where time (i.e., day) and environmental variables were fixed factors and individual terrapins were random factors. Day was a poor predictor of blood chemistry concentrations, indicating that the progression of winter did not elicit corresponding changes in biochemical indices as documented in other semi-aquatic turtles exposed to more severe winter and/or laboratory conditions. Carapace temperature was the most common predictor of blood chemistry concentrations in all models, underscoring its relative influence on physiology. In contrast to previous laboratory-based studies on the overwinter physiology of terrapins, our study demonstrates that terrapins in their natural environment are able to maintain biochemical homeostasis throughout winter. The use of evasive behavioral strategies may be an important factor for terrapins to reduce the passive exchange of water and salts with the estuarine environment.





Impact of Initial Norwood Shunt Type on Right Ventricular Deformation: The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial


Publication date: Available online 14 February 2015
Source:Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography

Author(s): Garick D. Hill , Peter C. Frommelt , Jessica Stelter , M. Jay Campbell , Meryl S. Cohen , Rami Kharouf , Wyman W. Lai , Jami C. Levine , Jimmy C. Lu , Shaji C. Menon , Timothy C. Slesnick , Pierre C. Wong , David E. Saudek

Background The Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial demonstrated a transplantation-free survival advantage at 12-month follow-up for patients with right ventricle–pulmonary artery shunts (RVPAS) with the Norwood procedure compared with modified Blalock-Taussig shunts but similar survival and decreased global right ventricular (RV) function on longer term follow-up. The impact of the required ventriculotomy for the RVPAS remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare echocardiography-derived RV deformation indices after stage 2 procedures in survivors with single RV anomalies enrolled in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial. Methods Global and regional RV systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate, ejection fraction, and short-axis percentage fractional area change were all derived by speckle-tracking echocardiography from protocol echocardiograms obtained at 14.3 ± 1.2 months. Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups. Results The cohort included 275 subjects (129 in the modified Blalock-Taussig shunt group and 146 in the RVPAS group). Longitudinal deformation could be quantified in 214 subjects (78%) and circumferential measures in 182 subjects (66%). RV ejection fraction and percentage fractional area change did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups for global or regional longitudinal deformation. Circumferential indices showed abnormalities in deformation in the RVPAS group, with decreased global circumferential strain (P = .05), strain rate (P = .09), and anterior regional strain rate (P = .07) that approached statistical significance. Conclusions RV myocardial deformation at 14 months, after stage 2 procedures, was not significantly altered by the type of initial shunt placed. However, abnormal trends were appreciated in circumferential deformation for the RVPAS group in the area of ventriculotomy that may represent early myocardial dysfunction. These data provide a basis for longer term RV deformation assessment in survivors after Norwood procedures.





Stable isotopes in yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) fossils reveal environmental stability in the late Quaternary of the Colorado Rocky Mountains


Publication date: March 2015
Source:Quaternary Research, Volume 83, Issue 2

Author(s): Linda M. Reynard , David J. Meltzer , Steven D. Emslie , Noreen Tuross

High elevation plant and animal communities are considered extremely sensitive to environmental change. We investigated an exceptional fossil record of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) specimens that was recovered from Cement Creek Cave (elev. 2860m) and ranged in age from radiocarbon background circa 49.8calkaBP to ~1calkaBP. We coupled isotopic and radiocarbon measurements (δ18O, δD, δ15N, δ13C, and 14C) of bone collagen from individually-AMS dated specimens of marmots to assess ecological responses by this species to environmental change over time in a high elevation basin in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. We find little change in all four isotope ratios over time, demonstrating considerable environmental stability during periods when the marmots were present. The stable ecology and the apparent persistence of the small mammal community in the cave fauna throughout the late Quaternary are in marked contrast to the changes that occurred in the large mammal community, including local extirpation and extinction, at the end of the Pleistocene.