The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations require principle investigators to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals and provide a written narrative of the methods used and sources consulted to determine the availability of alternatives including refinements, reductions, and replacements.
Principle investigators must also provide written assurance that their research activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments.
multiple database search is considered the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures.
The narrative must, at a minimum include:
1. The names of the databases searched.
2. The date(s) the search was performed.
3. The period covered by the search.
4. The key words and/or the search strategy used.
[From the Animal Care Resource Guide, Policy #12. United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.]
The National Institutes of Health Library lists the following "Red Flags" to an
INADEQUATE database search:
Only 1 database searched.
Terms only for painful aspects.
The term "alternative" used alone with no other alternative terms.
Keywords listed not relevant to protocol.
Keywords and concepts linked in an incorrect manner.
Search doesn't cover adequate time period.
The key parts of a literature search are: A)
how you search [forming a search strategy and choosing key words] and B) where you search [which databases to use].
When you are ready to begin your search, click on the
Articles and E-Resources link below.
A) How to Begin Your Search - Planning a Search and Choosing Search Terms [From the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments]
B) A guide to selecting Databases by Animal Model and Topic. [From the University of California Davis Center for Animal Alternatives Information]
Some of these are licensed Databases, available to UNCW Faculty, Staff, Students (both on and off-campus), and also to Guests in the Library. If you are off-campus you will be asked to log-in. Some of these databases are available for free to the public.
National Library of Medicine Resources on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing. Free Resource.
This collection of databases offers an integrated, versatile research platform, it delivers easy access to high quality, diversified scholarly information in the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities, as well as search and analysis tools that enhance this content. Coverage Dates: varies by database
This database covers academic areas of study including social sciences, humanities, education, computer sciences, engineering, language and linguistics, arts & literature, medical sciences, and ethnic studies. Coverage Dates: 1975 - present; updated daily
Citations to articles in the major agricultural journals worldwide. Free Resource Coverage Dates: 1970 - present
Search for citations and abstracts to 40 journals from the American Chemical Society. UNCW's license permits full-text to 13 of these journals. Coverage Dates: n/a
Provides access to databases in the sciences, social sciences, philosophy and education.
Provides abstracts and indexing for multi-disciplinary periodicals, reference books, full text from 86,017 biographies, 105,786 full text primary source documents, and an Image Collection of 341,655 photos, maps and flags. Coverage Dates: 1975 - present
Collections cover Life Sciences, Mathematics & Physical Sciences, Medicine, Social Sciences, Humanities, and Law, and include some of the most authoritative journals in their fields. Coverage Dates: n/a
The database contains more than 100,000 articles from 59 journals - 48 journals published by the American Psychological Association) and 11 from allied organizations. It contains all journal articles, letters to the editor and errata from each of the 59 journals. Coverage Dates: 1894 - present
Articles and book chapters in psychology and behavioral sciences. Coverage Dates: 1887 - present; Updated monthly
Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), PubMed is the most comprehensive biomedical research database, and a key resource used by scientists. Free Resource. Coverage Dates: 1966 - present with some older content; New citations are usually added to PubMed Tuesday through Saturday.
SAGE Journals Online offers full text access to more than 485 journals in Communication Studies, Criminology, Education, Health Sciences, Management & Organization Studies, Materials Science, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, Business, Humanities, Science and Technology. Coverage Dates: varies by publication
Offers access to some of the Elsevier Journal collection covering the sciences, business, child development, computer science, economics, history, hospitality, industrial technology, library and information science and tourism. Coverage Dates: 1995 - present
SpringerLink offers online access to several fully peer reviewed journals in biomedicine, life science, clinical medicine, physics, engineering, mathematics, computer science, humanities, and economics. Coverage Dates: n/a
TOXNET (TOXicology Data NETwork) is a cluster of databases covering toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health and related areas. It is managed by the Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) in the Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). TOXNET provides free access to multiple databases.
From the United States National Library of Medicine. A database of citations to Research-in-Progress funded by federal and foundation grants.
Books & Library Materials
Replacing the animal model in biomedical research and education -- Darwin and DNA: New findings in genetics negate the value of th e animal model -- Genomics, proteomics, and the new renaissance in biomedical research -- Animal tissue, human tissue and in vitro technology -- The Past, present, and future of human-based research -- Search for better, more effective medications -- Replacing animals in drug testing -- How technology is replacing animals in biomedical research and the practice of medicine -- Urgent need to focus resources on non-animal modalities
Introduction -- How it all began -- Legislated ineptitude -- The "pathetic illusion" of animal-modeled drugs -- White coat welfare -- Alternatives -- Real origins of new medications -- Cancer, our modern-day plague -- Diseases of the cardiovascular system -- AIDS and humbled science -- Animal organ donors -- Call to action
* 1 Fatal Connection: Cancer and Animal Testing * 2 The Numbers Game? How Animal-Based Toxicological Risk Assessment Works * 3 For the Public Good? Debunking the Animal Testing Myth * 4 Human Health at Risk * 5 Toxicological Testing Without Using Animals * 6 Reclaiming our Health and our Humanity: Strategies for Change
After surveying current research practices and model development strategies, the author examines animal models of eating disorders from both scientific and ethical points of view. He exposes logical inconsistencies in the study of animals as models for human behavior, and concludes that such research has little to contribute. The foreword is by noted chimpanzee-researcher Jane Goodall. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
Alternatives to whole animal testing / Alan Goldberg and Frederick Wehr -- Applications of in vitro methods for the cosmetic, household products, and pharmaceutical industries / Virginia C. Gordon -- In vitro testing program at Procter & Gamble / John Yam and C.L. Alden -- In vitro techniques for use in drug discovery / Paul Sweetnam, Charles Bauer, Jr. and Maura Charlton -- Structure-activity approaches as an alternative to animal testing for predicting toxicity in man / Shayne C. Gad -- Biological studies in psychiatry: neurochemical measurements with human subjects / Andrew J. Greenshaw -- Network models in behavioral and computational neuroscience / Paul S. Prueitt -- Ethology and noninvasive techniques / Peter H. Klopfer -- Computational modeling of biological/medical systems / Matthew Witten -- Human genome project: an overview of computational issues in molecular biology and genetics / Sarah Barron ... [et al.] -- Epidemiology as an alternative to animal research / Jennifer L. Kelsey and Susan Parker -- Alternatives to animals in preventive medicine / John Last -- Human autopsies in biomedical research / Michael B. Kapis -- Medical microbiology / Michael B. Kapis -- Physicochemical techniques in biological research and testing / Michael B. Kapis -- Magnetic resonance and the use of animals / Peter G. Morris
Excellent tutorial from UNC Health Sciences Library.
Excellent five-part series which examines the history and politics behind the Animal Welfare Act and asks us to look at how humane the laboratory animal business is today.
Articles covering a variety of Animal Testing Alternative issues. Physician's Committee for Responsible Medicine.
“Dying to Learn: Exposing the Supply and Use of Dogs and Cats in Higher Education” documents the hidden practices of colleges and universities in which unscrupulous Class B dealers, who obtain animals from shelters, sell former pets to education facilities, where these animals are used, and often killed, for dissection and live surgeries in teaching laboratories.
The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) is mandated by the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to provide information for improved animal care and use in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition. The Animal Welfare Information Center can assist you in performing the required literature search for research protocols.
Annual Reports of Research Facilities, Inspection Reports, etc. available through the Freedom of Information Act.
Promotes the scientific and regulatory acceptance of non-animal tests which are of importance to biomedical sciences, through research, test development and validation and the establishment of a specialised database service.
Good site for general information on the Replacement of Animals in Experiments. Also has a very good section on literature searching techniques.
The UC Davis Center for Animal Alternatives places special emphasis on disseminating up-to-date information concerning animal alternatives through every level of public and private education. It also seeks to provide investigators who use animals with information on the most current methods for improving all aspects of animal care during their work.
Altweb, the Alternatives to Animal Testing Web Site, was created to serve as a gateway to alternatives news, information, and resources on the Internet and beyond. Altweb now is the U.S. home of the journal ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, which is the official publication of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT).
Source for Grants. The mission of the Alternatives Research and Development Foundation is to fund and promote the development, validation and adoption of non-animal methods in biomedical research, product testing and education.
IIVS is a non-profit, science-based organization dedicated to the advancement of alternative testing methods. IIVS seeks to refine the science, broaden the use, and increase the acceptance of in vitro testing worldwide.
An open source, downloadable, multi-scale, virtual catalog of the mouse brain and its cellular constituents.
NORINA is an English-language database containing information on over 3,800 audiovisual aids that may be used as alternatives or supplements to the use of animals in teaching and training, including dissection alternatives, at all levels from junior school to University. The information in the database has been collected from 1991 until the present.
EURCA actively promotes the use of alternatives to using animals in higher education (HE). EURCA aims to provide a mechanism for effective dissemination of information about alternatives to using animals in HE.
InterNICHE aims for a high quality, fully humane education in biological science, veterinary and human medicine. InterNICHE supports progressive science teaching and the replacement of animal experiments by working with teachers to introduce alternatives, and with students to support freedom of conscience.
"The hard part of this work isn't convincing an IACUC board to sanction the killing. It's making sure you've exhausted every possible alternative."
The guide explains alternative and non-test methods of assessing the properties of chemical substances in order to provide the information required by the REACH Regulation.
The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) is an unprecedented voluntary collaboration between the European Commission, European trade associations, and companies from seven industry sectors. The partners are committed to pooling knowledge and resources to accelerate the development, validation and acceptance of alternative approaches to further the reduction, refinement and replacement (3Rs) of animal use in regulatory testing.
Animalearn strives to eliminate the use of animals in education and is dedicated to assisting educators and students to find the most effective non-animal methods to teach and study science.