Summary

This guide identifies collections relating to the November 10, 1898 racial coup in Wilmington, NC, where members of the Democratic party orchestrated a white supremacist political campaign that resulted in the violent overthrow of the locally elected government. In a bid to remove Fusion party members of Black businessmen and their white political allies from public positions of influence, a group of armed, white men—coaxed on and led by powerful community leaders known as The Secret Nine—attacked and killed Black citizens throughout the city, ran out many others, and finally placed their own Democratic candidates in the newly vacated seats. The events of the 1898 coup marked a turning point in the post-Reconstruction South that changed the trajectory of race relations in North Carolina and marked the start of Jim Crow laws in the state, which further enforced racial segregation through the mid-20th century. Primary source materials dated after the initial events of 1898 and until the 100th anniversary in 1998 illustrate that the coup continued to be invoked in the intervening years as a means to threaten and repress the local Black community. Additional content includes both primary and secondary sources of personal accounts, correspondence, contemporary news coverage, memoranda and resolutions of the main participants, material from the centennial commemoration, as well as the aforementioned from the perspective and experience of Black Americans. For further information on the lasting racial impacts of 1898 in Wilmington, please refer to the Civil Rights Movement and Wilmington Ten subject guides, linked under Related Special Collections Subject Guides.

NOT PUBLISHED

Journal Articles

These articles are accessible via various resources and UNCW provided databases, such as JSTOR.

  • Nash, June. 1973. “The Cost of Violence,” Journal of Black Studies. 4(2) 153-183.
  • Kirshenbaum, A.M. (1998). "The Vampire That Hovers Over North Carolina": Gender, White Supremacy, and the Wilmington Race Riot of 1898. Southern Cultures 4(3), 6-30.
  • Rose, Mariel. 1998. “Pokomoke: A Study in Remembering and Forgetting,” Ethnohistory 45(3), 543-573.
  • West, Henry Litchfield. “The Race War in North Carolina,” Forum, January 1899
  • Cash, W. J. “Jehovah of the Tar Heels,” American Mercury, July 1929.
  • Watson, Richard L., Jr. “Furnifold Simmons: ‘Jehovah of the Tar Heels?” North Carolina Historical Review 44, no. 2 (April 1967).
  • Prather, H, Leon. “The Red Shirt Movement in North Carolina 1898-1900.” Journal of Negro History 62, no. 2 (April 1977).
  • Steelman, Bennett L. “Black, White and Gray: The Wilmington Race Riot in Fact and Legend,” North Carolina Literary Review 2 no. 1 (Spring 1994).
  • McLaurin, Melton Alonza. “Commemorating Wilmington’s Racial Violence of 1898: From Individual to Collective Memory,” Southern Cultures 6, no. 4 (Winter 2000).
  • Rogoff, Leonard. “A Tale of Two Cities: Race, Riots, and Religion in New Bern and Wilmington, North Carolina, 1898,” Southern Jewish History 14 (2011).
  • Williams, Rachel Marie-Crane. “A War in Black and White” The Cartoons of Norman Ethre Jennett & the North Carolina Election of 1898,” Southern Cultures 19, no. 2 (Summer 2013).

Manuscript Collections Held at UNCW

MS 034 McDonald-Howe Family Papers

The McDonald-Howe Family Papers encompass a rare piece of history in southeastern North Carolina, beginning in 1861 when the freedom of Frederick Howe is granted. This collection contains character references, baptismal certificates, court documents, correspondence, photographs, an autobiography, educational resumes, and an eyewitness account of the 1898 Wilmington Coup, along with other family documents.

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MS 069 Wilmington Riot of November 10, 1898 Source Documents

This collection was compiled in 1973 by Michael Glancy, to complete his Multiple Abilities Project research report entitled "The Wilmington Riot of November 10, 1898." The collection includes xerographic, microform, and photocopies of newspaper and periodical articles, letters, memoranda, resolutions, and memoirs of some of the principal participants in the November 10, 1898 racially-motivated coup d'etat of Wilmington, NC.

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MS 130 A Communication by Mrs. Roger Moore

In her four page letter, which appeared to be directed to the local newspaper, the Wilmington Messenger, Mrs. Roger Moore took issue with an earlier story in the Elm City Mirror which had claimed that the leader of the "revolution of 1898 in Wilmington" was Colonel Alfred M. Waddell (1834-1912). According to Moore, the leaders were in fact her husband, Colonel Roger Moore and Doctor J. E. Matthews, and that Waddell was not informed of the movement's plans until after his election as Mayor.

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MS 132 Wilmington, North Carolina, 1898 Race Riot (Newspapers)

This collection contains photocopies of issues of the Wilmington Daily Record, The Evening Dispatch, and fragments of the New York Journal around the time of and covering the Wilmington race riots in 1898. The Journal makes explicit reference to the riots in Wilmington, gives the death toll as sixteen killed, and reprints the text of the Alex Manley editorial from the Wilmington Record.

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MS 167 Dr. Heyward C. Bellamy Collection

The Dr. Heyward C. Bellamy Collection contains court documents and supporting exhibit materials outlining the school integration law suit, Carolyn Eaton, et al v New Hanover County Board of Education. In addition to the original Eaton case, this collection contains documents related to the restraining order the New Hanover County School Board filed against individuals who would later be implicated in the 1971 riots as part of the Wilmington Ten. This case is titled, Carolyn Eaton, et al v New Hanover County Board of Education v Ben Chavis, et al.

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MS 217 1898 Commemoration Foundation Papers

This collection covers the 1997 establishment of the 1898 Commemoration Foundation and includes letters of inquiry, indexes of contributions, staff lists, grant information, documents concerning the distribution of funds, memos, personal letters, fund-raising information, photos, and newspaper clippings.

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MS 323 Melton McLaurin Collection

The materials in this collection are from Dr. McLaurin's personal files, and consist of correspondence, research notes, newspaper clippings, photographs and tapes regarding the 1898 Centennial, Separate Pasts, Celia: A Slave, The Marines of Montford Point documentary, and the North Carolina State Fair. This collection contains both original and photocopied material. Collection not processed. See Special Collections staff for access.

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MS 342 Grainger Family Papers

Contains historical letters, deeds, and documents belonging to the Grainger family of Wilmington, NC, including deeds from Eagle Island and correspondence with American historian John Hope Franklin regarding the 1898 Wilmington race riot.

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Special Collections Vertical Files

The Special Collections vertical files are compiled by Special Collections staff on an ongoing basis and contain material such as articles, photographs, maps, emphemera, etc. of various persons, places, organizations, and topical subjects related to UNCW and Southeastern North Carolina history.

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Wilmington, N.C. City Council Town Minutes (microfilm)

Copies of the Wilmington, N.C. City Council Town Minutes are available on microfilm at UNCW's Randally Library. Follow the link for information on access. For 1898 related content, please refer to the 1884-1898 and 1898-1911 reels.

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Primary Sources Held at Other Institutions

Louis T. Moore Collection (NHCPL)

The Louis T. Moore Photograph Collection in the North Carolina Room of the New Hanover Public Library contains 976 photographs, mostly of New Hanover County and vicinity. It is a remarkable collection of pictures, which were taken between 1921 and 1941, when Mr. Moore was secretary of the Wilmington Chamber of Commerce. Relevant to 1898 within the collection is "The Wilmington Race Riot" by James H. Cowan.

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National Archives Material Relating to the 1898 Wilmington Race Riot

This document contains a transcription of National Archvives material related to the 1898 riot. Source: RG 60, General Records of the Department of Justice, Box 1117A "Year Files," 1887-1904, File 17743-1898. Note: This transcription of the letters includes misspellings and irregular punctuation. No attempt has been made to insert corrections. Transcribed August 2002, Dennis F. Daniels, North Carolina, Department of Archives and History.

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Dr. Robert M. Fales Collection

This collection was created by Robert Martin Fales (1907-1995), a native of Wilmington and local physician from 1935 to 1985. In the early 1970s, Dr. Fales began accumulating photographs of physicians who had practiced in Wilmington. Over the years, the focus of the collection enlarged to cover any photograph relating to historic Wilmington. His collection, which includes over 1300 slides and original images, was given to the New Hanover Public Library upon his death. This collection contains two original photographs from the day of the race riot in 1898.

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Cape Fear Museum Digital Collection "Collier's Weekly" 1898

Flickr photo collection provided by the Cape Fear Museum of History and Science of newspaper headlines and clippings from Wilmington Messenger in 1898 during the "North Carolina Race War." Also contains a Collier's Weekly article from November 1898 written by coup leader Alfred Moore Waddell.

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Alex L. Manly Papers

Digitized collection of papers of Alex L. Manly, African-American newspaper editor of The Daily Record in Wilmington, North Carolina during the Wilmington Race Riot of 1898. Includes photographs, clippings, letter transcriptions, and interview with collection donor Milo A. Manly in 1984.

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George Rountree Papers

Papers (1921-1925) consisting of correspondence, letters, social events, annual report copies, physician's bill and corporation report to stock holders. The correspondence in this collection consists, for the most part, of letters written by George Rountree to his son George Jr., while the latter was attending Harvard (1921-1925). Although much of the material contained in the correspondence is personal in nature, the elder Rountree often included comments on the political, commercial, and social events of the period covered.

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Louis T. Moore Collection, 1766-1950 (State Archives of NC)

Items collected by Moore, chairman of New Hanover Historical Commission, including original of the London Chronicle, No. 1443 (Mar. 18-20, 1766), with news of Wilmington's resistance to the Stamp Act; newspaper clipping containing extracts (1774-1775) from letter book of William Hill, Brunswick merchant; typescript recollections of the Wilmington race riot of 1898 by editor Thomas W. Clawson; and draft of speech by Adm. E. A. Anderson (1860-1933), Wilmington native, on need for sea power (n.d.). Also typed copy of Griffith J.

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North Carolina Office of Archives and History

North Carolina has a long legacy of public history. Our state's historical program, founded in 1903, has evolved into what is now our Office of Archives and History (OAH). The agencies of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History celebrate history from pre-colonial times to the present. They collectively safeguard documentary and material evidence of earlier generations and provide leadership and assistance to government agencies, individuals, businesses and organizations to further the stewardship of the state's historic resources.

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North Carolina has a long legacy of public history. Our state's historical program, founded in 1903, has evolved into what is now our Office of Archives and History (OAH). The agencies of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History celebrate history from pre-colonial times to the present. They collectively safeguard documentary and material evidence of earlier generations and provide leadership and assistance to government agencies, individuals, businesses and organizations to further the stewardship of the state's historic resources. The following materials related to 1898 can be found here: --Manuscript minutes, Wilmington Board of Aldermen, November 10, 1898, State of North Carolina --Colonel Walker Taylor, "Reports on the Riots at Wilmington," Adjutant-General, State of North Carolina, November 22, 1898, documents No. 9 and 29.
Cronly Family Papers

The Cronly family included Michael Cronly, Sr., auctioneer and real estate broker of Wilmington, N.C. and his wife, Margaret McLaurin Cronly and their nine children. Collection includes correspondence, legal papers, financial papers, writings, account books, volumes, clippings and printed material. It ranges in date from 1806-1944. Includes a "race riot account" in Box 21 regarding the 1898 coup.

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Hugh MacRae Papers

The collection documents the business dealings of Hugh MacRae, specifically through the Carolina Trucking Development Company, MacRae and MacRae Attorneys, Hugh MacRae and Company, Oleander Development Company, and the Carolina Real Estate Trust Company. Collection materials include correspondence, ledgers, contracts, deeds, 1940s-1970s. Also included are items related to the neighborhoods and farming colonies established by MacRae in southeastern North Carolina, including Artesia, Audubon, Castle Haynes, Marathon, New Berlin, Long Bridge Bay, Noble Lands, Oleander, Penderlea, St.

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Thomas W. Clawson Papers

Undated account (10 p.) of an eyewitness, Thomas W. Clawson, then city editor of the Wilmington (N.C.) "Messenger," of the Wilmington race riot of November 1898. Also included is a notarized copy of the editorial concerning southern womanhood by African American newspaper editor Alexander L. Manly, which was used by white supremacists to incite the riot.

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Alfred M. Waddell Papers

Documents the 1898 Wilmington Massacre and coup after which Waddell became mayor. Papers include correspondence, writings, speeches, manuscripts, and clippings.

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Marion Butler Papers

Marion Butler of Sampson County, N.C., was president of the North Carolina and National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union; state and national Populist Party leader; member of the North Carolina Senate; United States senator, 1895-1901; and Republican Party leader after 1904. He owned and edited a newspaper, the Caucasian, located at various times in Clinton, Goldsboro, and Raleigh, N.C. He practiced law in Washington, D.C., 1901-1938. The collection includes personal, political, and business correspondence and other papers of Marion Butler, chiefly 1890-1927.

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Ruffin, Roulhac, and Hamilton Family

Ruffin, Roulac, and Hamilton family members resided chiefly in eastern and central North Carolina, but also in Florida, Tennessee, and Alabama. Prominent among them were Thomas Ruffin (1787-1870), Anne M. Kirkland Ruffin (b. 1794), Joseph Blount Gregoire Roulhac (1795-1856), Catherine Ruffin Roulhac (b. 1810), and Daniel Heyward Hamilton, Jr. (b. 1838). The collection includes correspondence, financial and legal papers, account books, photographs, and other items, chiefly 1823-1890, relating to members of the Ruffin, Roulhac, and Hamilton families and their friends and associates.

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Bennehan Cameron Papers

Collection of correspondence, financial papers, account books, and other documents of Bennehan Cameron, planter, railroad executive, industrialist, and promoter of good roads, of Durham County and Raleigh, N.C. Papers dated 1866-1962.

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D.I. Craig Papers

The collection includes one account book, one day book, 14 diaries, loose papers, one cash book, and two notebooks, all relating to Presbyterian minister D.I. Craig of Orange County, N.C. The account book, 1878-1924, includes information about marriages, baptisms, and burials performed by D.I. Craig. It also contains insurance information and lists new members of Reidsville Presbyterian Church, 1878-1897, with some gaps. The day book, 1912-1923, contains salary, expenditure, and debt information for D.I. Craig and his family.

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John S. Henderson Papers

The collection includes letters, financial and legal papers, and other items of John S. Henderson, Democratic Party politician, member of the North Carolina General Assembly, United States congressman, lawyer, and a founder of rural free delivery of the mail, of Salisbury, N.C., and and members of the Henderson and related families. Earliest items are deeds, indentures, wills, and other legal documents. Contains 1898 correspondence commenting on the racial situation in Wilmington and the race riot.

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Henry G. Connor Papers

Henry G. Connor was a lawyer, legislator, bank president, and judge of Wilson, N.C. The collection consists chiefly of correspondence of Connor, particularly with his wife and daughters, and with sons George Whitfield Connor, North Carolina Superior and Supreme Court judge; H. G. Connor Junior, lawyer and legislator; and Robert Digges Wimberly Connor, secretary of the North Carolina Historical Commission, professor at the University of North Carolina, and later the first Archivist of United States.

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John Henry William Bonitz Papers

John Henry William Bonitz was a German immigrant who came to Goldsboro, N.C., in 1859. He married Mary Stegner (1845-1921), also a German immigrant, in 1862, and moved to Wilmington, N.C., in 1887. He was proprietor, with his brother Julius, of the Goldsboro, N.C., Messenger and the Wilmington, N.C., Messenger newspapers, a hotel, and a farm. The collection includes three scrapbooks containing newspaper clippings of columns written 1902-1912 by Bonitz and his wife, Mary, concerning past days, 1859-1887, in Goldsboro; clippings, mainly 1891-1912, of similar columns by J. M.

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Southern Oral History Program

This collection, housed in the Southern Historical Collection of the UNC Center for the Study of the American South, contains more than 5,000 oral histories. The Southern Oral History Program Interview Database provides detailed descriptions of the interviews in the Southern Oral History Program Collection. The interviews in this collection were conducted or collected under the auspices of the Southern Oral History Program in the Center for the Study of the American South at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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North Carolina Collection, Wilson Library

The North Carolina Collection is dedicated to preserving literary, visual, and artifactual materials illustrating four centuries of the colony and state of North Carolina. The collection comprises three divisions: the Research Library, North Carolina Collection Gallery, and Photographic Archives.

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The North Carolina Collection is dedicated to preserving literary, visual, and artifactual materials illustrating four centuries of the colony and state of North Carolina. The collection comprises three divisions: the Research Library, North Carolina Collection Gallery, and Photographic Archives. The following material related to 1898 can be found here: --Report of the Commanding Officer of Naval Battalion, Headquarters, N.C. Naval Battalion, Wilmington, NC, Dec 1, 1898, Reports on the Riot at Wilmington, November 22, 1898, North Carolina Public Documents, Document No. 9, North Carolina Collection, UNC Chapel Hill --"The Democratic Handbook," 1898. Prepared by the State Democratic Executive Committee of the North Carolina Democratic Party, State Executive Committtee, Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1898, North Carolina Collection, UNC Chapel Hill --Minutes of the Organizational Meeting of the Association of Members of the Wilmington Light Infantry, Lumina, Wrightsville Beach, December 14, 1905, North Carolina Collection, UNC Chapel Hill
Edward Bell Price Papers

Correspondence, diaries, notebooks, scrapbooks, clippings, photos, and memorabilia from Edward Price Bell's time as a foreign correspondent for the Chicago Daily News, roving correspondent for the Literary Digest, and contributor to the Times of London and other publications. In 1898, Bell left Indiana for Chicago, where he sought out Chicago Record editor Charles Dennis.

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Newspapers

Linked here are newspaper databases and digitized newspaper collections with significant material applicable to 1898. Please note that coverage of the coup was broad and widely reported in multiple regional and national newspapers. The below are a list of Wilmington and North Carolina newspapers, historical and current, but please refer to related bibliographies, such as in David Zucchino's Wilmington's Lie, for additional sources:

  • Wilmington, NC
    • Cape-Fear Recorder
    • The Daily Dispatch
    • The Daily Journal
    • The Daily Record
    • The Evening Dispatch
    • The Morning Star
    • The Record
    • Semi-Weekly Messenger
    • Wilmington Daily Post
    • Wilmington Evening Dispatch
    • Wilmington Herald
    • Wilmington Messenger
    • Wilmington Post
    • Wilmington Star
    • Wilmington Star-News
  • North Carolina
    • Charlotte Daily Observer
    • Charlotte Observer
    • Fayetteville Observer
    • Morning Post, Raleigh, NC
    • New Berne Daily Journal
    • North Carolina Times
    • Raleigh Gazette
    • Raleigh Register
    • Raleigh Sentinel
    • Union-Republican, Winston-Salem, NC
    • Weekly Standard, Raleigh, NC
The Daily Record (Wilmington, NC)

The Daily Record was an African American paper that figured prominently in the Wilmington Riot and Coup d’etat of 1898. Very few issues are known to remain; in partnership with the Cape Fear Museum and UNC-Chapel Hill, The North Carolina Digital Heritage Center has shared those remaining issues here. You can also read more about a project to assemble quotes from the Record found in other newspapers of the era at The Wilmington Daily Record Project.

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The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC)

Editions of The News & Observer from 1898 are available on microfilm at UNCW's Randall Library. Please follow the link for information on accessing these.

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Historic North Carolina Digital Newspaper Collection

Find historical newspapers from across the United States and beyond. Explore newspaper articles and clippings for help with genealogy, history and other research. 5,100+ newspapers from the 1700s–2000s.

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Find historical newspapers from across the United States and beyond. Explore newspaper articles and clippings for help with genealogy, history and other research. 5,100+ newspapers from the 1700s–2000s. For local 1898 newspapers, reference The Wilmington Messenger, The Wilmington Morning Star, and the Wilmington Dispatch.
The Wilmington Journal Collection, 1953-1977

This collection contains copies of the local, weekly African-American newspaper, The Wilmington Journal, which was founded in Wilmington, N.C. in 1901. Thirteen digital copies are included here--twelve before the paper's burning in 1971 and one after. The New Hanover County Public Library has microfilmed copies from 1974 to 1982, available at the North Carolina Room of the downtown branch. Original physical copies, from 1983 through the present, are also available at the library.

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This collection contains copies of the local, weekly African-American newspaper, The Wilmington Journal, which was founded in Wilmington, N.C. in 1901. Thirteen digital copies are included here--twelve before the paper's burning in 1971 and one after. The New Hanover County Public Library has microfilmed copies from 1974 to 1982, available at the North Carolina Room of the downtown branch. Original physical copies, from 1983 through the present, are also available at the library. Relevant material speaks to post-1898 incidents and relations.
Historical Black Newspapers

This collection of historical black newspapers provides genealogists, researchers and scholars with online, easily-searchable first-hand accounts and unparalleled coverage of the politics, society and events of the time. Publications include:

  • The Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988)
  • Chicago Defender (1909-1975)
  • Michigan Chronicle (1934-2010)
  • New York Amsterdam News (1922 - 1993)
  • Norfolk Journal and Guide (1916-2003)
  • Pittsburgh Courier (1911 - 2002)
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This collection of historical black newspapers provides genealogists, researchers and scholars with online, easily-searchable first-hand accounts and unparalleled coverage of the politics, society and events of the time. Of significance for 1898 is The Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988).
African American Newspapers Series 1

Chronicling a century and a half of the African American experience, African American Newspapers, Series 1, features 280 newspapers from 35 states, including many rare and historically significant 19th-century titles. These titles published for or by African Americans constitute valuable primary sources for researchers exploring such diverse disciplines as cultural, literary and social history; ethnic studies and more.

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African American Newspapers Series 2

African American Newspapers, Series 2, 1835-1956 complements and expands on African American Newspapers, Series 1. Published in 22 states and the District of Columbia, the more than 75 newly available newspapers in Series 2 significantly increase access to primary sources for researchers across African and African American studies; political science; ethnic studies; diaspora studies; women’s studies; and cultural, literary and social history.

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Historical Newspapers

This collection of historical newspapers provides genealogists, researchers and scholars with online, easily-searchable first-hand accounts and unparalleled coverage of the politics, society and events of the time. Includes:

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Chicago Record

Edward Price Bell, a reporter for the Chicgo Record, was present in Wilmington at the time of the coup and reported on the events he witnessed. The Chicago Public Library maintains copies of the Chicago Record from 1898 on microfilm. Please refer to the link for more information on access.

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Additional Resources

The following resources and published works are not available through Randall Library. Please seek external sources for access and further information.

  • Black Reconstruction: An Essay Toward a History of the Past Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 by W.E. Burghardt Du Bois, 1935
  • The Negro in North Carolina, Politics Since Reconstruction by William Alexander Mabry, 1940
  • A Journal of the McKinley Years by Charles G. Dawes, 1950
  • Sand Against the Wind: The Memoirs of John C. Dancy by John C. Dancy, 1966
  • Southern Racial Politics & North Carolina’s Black Vote by Val Atkinson, 2007
  • "Devoted to the Interests of His Race: Black Officeholders and the Political Culture of Freedom in Wilmington, North Carolina, 1865-1877" by Thanayi Jackson, 2016 - accessible via ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Wilmington Massacre and Coup d'etat of 1898 - Timeline of Events

Created by the Cape Fear Museum in collaboration with the New Hanover County Public Library and Information Technology department, this map and timeline allows users to explore the context and history of the 1898 coup beginning with Emancipation and ending with the election of the first African American city council member in 1972. 

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From The Archives: Understanding 1898: America's Only Coup D'état (WHQR)

This page documents the only known coup d’état in American history in Wilmington, NC on November 10, 1898. A 2008 memorial on North 3rd Street in downtown Wilmington commemorates the coup, yet the significance of the event has not reached Americans’ collective consciousness. Through the resources collected here, WHQR hopes to advance the conversation about this seminal American tragedy.

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The Ghosts of 1898: Wilmington's Race Riot and the Rise of White Supremacy

This page features an in-depth and comprehensive article on the 1898 Wilmington Race Riot by Timothy B. Tyson, published in The News & Observer in November 2006. It explains both the events that led to the riot and the impact it had on national race relations, as well as its continuing legacy.

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Missing Chapter (Vox): When White Supremacists Overthrew A Government

The hidden history of an American coup. In November 1898, in Wilmington, North Carolina, a mob of 2,000 white men expelled black and white political leaders, destroyed the property of the city’s black residents, and killed dozens--if not hundreds--of people. How did such a turn of events change the course of the city? For decades, the story of this violence was buried, while the perpetrators were cast as heroes. Yet its impacts resonate across the state to this day.

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Oral Histories

To explore more interviews, please search the Oral History Collection.

Interview with Melton McLaurin (Oral History)

In this oral history interview, Melton McLaurin discusses his career in academics as well as his life history. He begins with his childhood in Wade, North Carolina. Dr. McLaurin attended East Carolina University for his bachelor's and master's degrees in history. He and his wife obtained their Ph.D's from the University of South Carolina in 1967. They both obtained jobs at the University of South Alabama. In 1977, they moved with their family to Wilmington. Dr. McLaurin was hired as chair of the history department, a position that he held until 1991.

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Southern Oral History Program

This collection, housed in the Southern Historical Collection of the UNC Center for the Study of the American South, contains more than 5,000 oral histories. The Southern Oral History Program Interview Database provides detailed descriptions of the interviews in the Southern Oral History Program Collection. The interviews in this collection were conducted or collected under the auspices of the Southern Oral History Program in the Center for the Study of the American South at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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This collection, housed in the Southern Historical Collection of the UNC Center for the Study of the American South, contains more than 5,000 oral histories. The Southern Oral History Program Interview Database provides detailed descriptions of the interviews in the Southern Oral History Program Collection. Digital transcripts and audio for many interviews are available through this database created and maintained by the University Library at UNC Chapel Hill. Analog audio recordings, paper transcripts, and supplementary files are available through the Southern Historical Collection in the Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library at UNC Chapel Hill. Specific to 1898 is an interview with “Mrs. B,” a native of Wilmington, N.C., from 1978, as part of the "B.2.2. Individual Biographies: Special Focus: Racial Violence in Wilmington, N.C." project.

Subject Headings

Subject headings are a specific word or phrase used to find and organize cataloged material, like books or articles, by topic. Below are suggested Library of Congress subject headings to aid in furthering your search for related 1898 materials:

African Americans – North Carolina – Wilmington -- History

African Americans – Political activity – North Carolina 

Aycock, Charles B. (Charles Brantley), 1859-1912

Bellamy, John Dillard, 1853-1942

Daniels, Josephus, 1862-1948

Felton, Rebecca Latimer, 1835-1930

MacRae, Hugh, 1865-1951

Manly, Alex

Matthews, J. E., Dr. (John Edwards), 1844-1919

Moore, Roger, Colonel, 1838-1900

North Carolina – Politics and government – 1865-1950 

Simmons, Furnifold M. (Furnifold McLendel), 1854-1940

Tillman, Benjamin R. (Benjamin Ryan), 1847-1918

Waddell, Alfred M. (Alfred Moore), 1834-1912

Wilmington (N.C.) -- Race relations

Wilmington (N.C.) -- History – 19th century

Wilmington Race Riot, Wilmington, N.C. 1898

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